MENA Salon


Every Friday at 3:00 pm, the CMES hosts an informal guided discussion of current events in the Middle East and North Africa, open to all and free of charge. CMES holds these events to engage the university community and the public in balanced discussion of issues that are of national interest.

Below you will find information on past and future topics.

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3/15 The Biden Administration’s Middle East Policy

Since taking office in January, President Joe Biden has already signaled major shifts in the United States’ policy in the Middle East. In early February, Biden announced that the United States would end its support of Saudi Arabia’s military operations in Yemen, including reducing U.S. arms sales to the country. In another decision regarding the war in Yemen, the new administration reversed former President Trump’s designation of the Huthis as a terrorist organization. Last week, Biden declassified Congress’s report on the assassination of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, revealing that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman approved his killing. In an additional policy reversal, President Biden offered to restart negotiations with Iran over its nuclear program. Finally, Biden’s recent airstrikes in Syria prompt questions around the new administration’s stance on the conflict in Syria and other ongoing conflicts in Libya. Join us for a participatory virtual discussion on how these and other potential policy changes may affect U.S. relations in the region. 

Suggested readings: 

Biden Ends Military Aid for Saudi War in Yemen. Ending the War Is Harder.

Biden Seeks to Sideline Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman

The U.S. Should Reverse Its Huthi Terrorist Designation

Khashoggi Report Spurs “Reckoning Moment” for US-Saudi Relations

Biden Administration Formally Offers to Restart Nuclear Talks with Iran

There’s a Smarter Way to be Tough on Iran

Syria Airstrikes Resurface Lawmakers’ Questions Over Presidential Authority


11/13 Climate Change and Environmental Justice in the Middle East

The coronavirus pandemic and enduring refugee crisis have highlighted the impact of climate change, food insecurity, and access to healthcare and housing across the Middle East and North Africa. From Lebanon’s unprecedented wildfires in 2019 to water scarcity amidst the ongoing war in Yemen, countries in the region are tasked with confronting the effects of climate change in addition to the challenges posed by conflict, economic precarity, and political upheaval. In response, people across the region have mobilized for environmental justice in a variety of ways. Please join us for our first MENA Salon of the year as we discuss climate change and environmental movements from Algeria to Yemen and the Levant. 

Suggested readings:

Water in the Middle East: A Primer
Water Scarcity, Climate Change, and COVID-19 in Yemen: An Interview with Helen Lackner
“Algeria is not for Sale!” Mobilizing Against Fracking in the Sahara
The Agrarian Question in Lebanon Today: A View from a Camp in the Bekaa Valley
Lebanon is on Fire
How a Rush for Mediterranean Gas Threatens to Push Greece and Turkey into War



03/06 War Between Turkey and Syria

 On Sunday, March 1st, Turkey declared war on the government of Bashar al-Assad, after at least 36 Turkish soldiers were killed by Syrian and Russian artillery and airstrikes in the Syrian province of Idlib. The sharp escalation in tensions comes as Assad’s government closes in on Idlib, forcing tens of thousands of Syrians to flee towards the Turkish border. Over the weekend, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan also opened the borders for migrants and refugees to head towards Europe, apparently to put pressure on Europe and NATO to support his military operation. In this week’s salon, we will discuss the war and its human costs.

Suggested readings:

Turkey declares major offensive against Syrian government
Two Syrian government jets and Turkish drones downed, as Idlib tensions escalate
Deciphering Turkey’s darkest night in Syria
Clashes as thousands gather at Turkish border to enter Greece
‘Impossible task:’ Aid groups in Idlib struggle to help Syrians
Catastrophic Humanitarian Crisis in Idlib as Syrian Troops Advance & Children Freeze to Death
Has Turkey’s incursion into Syria opened the door for an Islamic State comeback?
Turkey is extending Hafez al-Assad’s ‘Arab belt’


02/28 The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

On 16 February, Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry told reporters that Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan are slated to reach a final agreement on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) within a week. Shoukry’s announcement came a few weeks after representatives from the three countries spent three days in Washington, DC reviewing the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the World Bank’s proposal for the project. The dispute began in 2011 when Ethiopian began construction on the dam, which lies on the Blue Nile on the border with Sudan. Ethiopia promises that the dam will provide irrigation and electricity benefits to Sudan, but Egypt fears how the dam will affect the flow of the Nile into Egypt. What implications could the plan have for other countries dealing with severe droughts and dilemmas of natural resource allocation? Join us for a discussion of the GERD at this week’s Salon. 

Suggested readings:

Egypt’s Foreign Minister Anticipates Final GERD Agreement By Next Week
Egypt and Ethiopia Said to Be Close to Accord on Renaissance Dam
US-Proposed GERD Deal Sets Ethiopia Water Release at 37 bcm, Major Disputes Remain
Bridging the Gap in the Nile Waters Dispute
“We Woke Up in A Desert”: The Water Crisis Taking Hold Across Egypt


02/21  Refugees and Migration

This week’s salon takes a broad overview of current refugee and migration issues as they relate to the MENA region. What is going on in Turkey, which initially welcomed Syrian refugees but is now hostile towards them? How has Europe’s attitude towards refugees evolved in the past several years, and what are the dynamics between individual member states? Can we imagine a better path forward than what has so far been done? 

Suggested readings:

Key takeaways from the first Global Refugee Forum
Racism and Syrians in Turkey: The Political Economy of Discrimination
Greece’s proposed ‘floating wall’ shows the failure of EU migration policies
For women refugees, finding work is doubly hard
Making misery pay: Libya militias take EU funds for migrants
Italy’s failed migration fix has led to chaos in Libya
Europe breaking own rules to deter asylum seekers
800,000 Syrians have fled in three months. This is what it looks like.


02/14 Trump’s Mideast Peace Plan​

On Tuesday, 28 January, President Donald Trump announced his Middle East peace plan alongside Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Dubbed the “deal of the century,” the plan is based on a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, it is markedly different than any plan ever proposed by a U.S. president. Among other things, the plan would recognize all of Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel, allow Israel to maintain its settlements in the West Bank, enable Israel to formally annex parts of the West Bank, and permit Israel to control security within the proposed Palestinian state. Additionally, the Palestinian leadership had no input in crafting the plan. The other Arab states have had a mixed response to the plan, with many remaining silent. How did the proposed plan come to be? Why did Trump announce it now? What options do the Palestinians have in responding to the plan? How would the plan affect Israel’s relationship with Arab states and overall regional security? Join us as we discuss the Trump administration’s peace plan in this week’s Salon. 

Trump’s Middle East Peace Plan Exposes the Ugly Truth

A Muted Arab Response to Trump’s Mideast Peace Plan

Trump’s Mideast Peace Plan Leaves Palestinians With Few Options

Trump Just Green-Lit Annexation. Here’s How Palestinians Can Stop It.

Why Jordan Valley Settlers Fear Annexation More Than Palestinians Do

Will Jordan Pay a Price?

Senior Defense Officials Warn Annexation Would Endanger Israel’s Peace with Jordan


01/31 What is happening in Libya? 
Since roughly 2014, Libya has been locked in a civil war between two governments: The Government of National Accord (GNA), led by Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj, is based in Tripoli, while the eastern part of the country is controlled by General Khalifa Haftar, who commands the so-called Libyan National Army (LNA). Each side is supported by various foreign powers, thus making the conflict in Libya a kind of proxy war. The GNA is recognized by the UN and the U.S., and is supported in particular by Turkey, Qatar and Italy. Haftar has the support of Egypt, the UAE, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and France. In early January, an attempt at a ceasefire--jointly backed by Russia and Turkey--failed when Haftar refused to sign the agreement. Meanwhile, Libya continues to attract migrants and refugees, many of whom suffer exploitation and worse in their attempts to cross the Mediterranean Sea to Europe. In this week’s salon, we will discuss the state of the war in Libya and its impact on the region, as well as the various ideological, economic and geopolitical interests at play. 

Suggested readings:


01/24 The Assassination of Qassem Suleimani

On 3 January, Major General Qassem Suleimani of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Corps Guard was assassinated by a U.S. drone strike upon his arrival at Baghdad International Airport in Iraq. The next day, President Trump ordered the deployment of 3,500 U.S. troops to the Middle East. The Trump administration’s killing of Suleimani broke with the decades-long U.S. policy of not assassinating foreign government officials. The aftermath of Suleimani’s death included days of mourning and protests in Iran and Iraq, anti-war protests across the United States, and a vote in the Iraqi Parliament to expel U.S. forces from the country. On 8 January, hours after Iran launched missiles at U.S. military bases in Iraq, an Iranian missile struck down a Ukrainian commercial aircraft, killing 176 people. The Iranian government stated that the strike on Ukraine Flight 752 was due to human error, and thousands of Iranians took to the streets in anti-government protests. In this week’s Salon, we will discuss the implications of Suleimani’s assassination for U.S.-Iranian relations and its impact on the region.

Suggested readings:

As Tensions With Iran Escalated, Trump Opted for Most Extreme Measure

Backdrop and Reverberations of Soleimani’s Assassination

The Danger From Iran Didn't Die With Soleimani

Yes, Iranians Can Protest Against Both US intervention and Their Government

What It's Like When Your Two Home Countries Are on the Brink of War

The Iraqi Military Won’t Survive a Tug of War Between the United States and Iran

Suleimani’s Killing Strengthens Putin’s Hand in Syria and Iraq

The Shadow Commander



12/13 Semester in Review

Join the CMES for the final MENA Salon of the semester, where we will review all that has happened in the Middle East and North Africa over the past semester.

Suggested readings:


12/06 Uprisings in Iraq

Since 1 October, protests have erupted across southern and central Iraq. Calling for an end of the political system that was established after the U.S. invasion of Iraq and fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003, demonstrators are fed up with political corruption, high unemployment rates, and the lack of basic services like potable drinking water and electricity. More than four hundred Iraqis have been killed by security forces since the uprising began. How does the current political landscape of Iraq impact where protests are taking place and where they are not? Why are these protests different than others in central and southern Iraq in recent years? Join us at this week’s Salon as we discuss the ongoing protests in Iraq. 

Suggested readings:

Forty Days of Revolution in Iraq 

Uncertainty Remains as Iraq Parliament Accepts PM’s Resignation

“It’s Personal Here”: Southern Iraq Ablaze As Protests Rage

Ongoing Updates on Protests in Iraq

“Our Patience is Over”: Why Iraqis Are Protesting 

Iraqi Scholar Sinan Antoon: Anti-Government Protests Have Led to “Reclaiming of Iraqi Identity”



11/22 Climate Change and Oil Production in the Arabian Peninsula

This week, Saudi Aramco, the most profitable company in the world, is expected to begin its initial public offering (IPO). Meanwhile, several reports from the last few years warn that parts of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf could become uninhabitable as soon as this century, due to deadly heat waves resulting from climate change. How are these two things connected? To what extent is oil production in the Gulf region to blame for rising global temperatures? And how are governments in the Arabian Peninsula responding to the threats posed by climate change? Join us for a discussion of the implications of Aramco’s IPO, and of the wider effects of climate change in the Gulf region. 

Suggested readings:

The world’s most profitable company is about to go public

Saudi Aramco IPO: the ultimate marriage between carbon and capitalism

Saudi Arabia denies its key role in climate change even as it prepares for the worst

Kuwait’s inferno: how will the world’s hottest city survive climate change?

Kuwait reins in oil ambitions in rare climate acknowledgement

Green Incubators: UAE Rethinks Sustainability with ‘Sustainable Cities’ 

Climate Crisis: 13 ways the Middle East is under threat



11/08 The Lebanese Uprising

Since the Lebanese government announced a tax on WhatsApp on 17 October, protesters have taken to the streets in Beirut and across the country to express their discontent with political corruption and the economic crisis. On 29 October, Prime Minister Saad Hariri resigned from his position after failing to reach an agreement with the country’s political parties on any governmental changes that would address the protesters’ demands. While a path forward is yet to be determined, Hariri remains the most popular politician in Lebanon and the most likely choice to lead the future government. What could Lebanon’s future government look like? What effects may the protests have for the country’s confessional political system? Join us for a discussion of the protests and their political implications. 

Suggested readings:

The Making of Lebanon’s October Revolution
Lebanon: Eyes on Hezbollah, Allies After Hariri Resignation
Ongoing Post on Protests in Beirut/Lebanon

Lebanon’s Tripoli Rises Above Lingering Effects of War to Revolt

‘Baby Shark’ and the Sounds of Protest in Lebanon

Hezbollah’s Road to Power in Lebanon Just Got Harder



11/01 Religious Freedom in the Middle East and Beyond

On 23 September, UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief Ahmed Shaheed released a report on the “Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance.” The report notes the rise of anti-Semitism worldwide, pointing to the fatal attacks on synagogues in Pittsburgh and San Diego. The rise of anti-Semitism can also be linked to the rise of religious intolerance across the globe, from the persecution of Yazidis to attacks on Coptic churches in Egypt and on mosques in Canada, New Zealand, and Norway. In this week’s Salon, we will discuss the freedom of belief (or non-belief) at home and abroad. 

Suggested readings:

Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance
A Closer Look at How Religious Restrictions Have Risen Around the World
In 2016, Emergency Laws Restricted Religious Freedoms of Muslims More than Other Groups
Canadian Student Pleads Guilty to Killing Six Men in Mosque Shooting
One Dead in Synagogue Shooting Near San Diego; Officials Call It Hate Crime
Iran: Arrests, Harassment of Baha’is
Egypt: Gunmen Kill Seven Coptic Christians in Bus Ambush
Nadia Murad Nobel Lecture on Yazidis


10/25 Tunisian Elections

On 13 October, Tunisians voted in a runoff in the second presidential elections since nationwide protests forced Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to step down after his twenty-four-year rule. The two frontrunners, legal scholar Kais Saied and businessman Nabil Karoui, were both unlikely candidates due to their lack of political experience. After a close election on 15 September, Saied emerged victorious in the runoff, winning more than 72 percent of votes. Saied ran as an independent on an anti-establishment, conservative platform and backed by the Ennahdha party. At this week’s Salon, we’ll discuss how these two unlikely candidates emerged as the frontrunners and what Saied’s election might mean for the future of Tunisia.  

Suggested readings:
Tunisia Presidential Election: Kais Saied Declared Winner
Robocop v. Corleone: Disgruntled Tunisians Vote in Presidential Runoff
Tunisia’s Elections, Explained
Who Are the Main Candidates in Tunisia’s Presidential Election?
Presidential Elections in Tunisia: Reading the First Round Results
Why Kais Saied Is Poised to Become Tunisia’s Next President
The Future of Democracy in Tunisia

An Uphill Battle: The Truth and Dignity Report and Transitional Justice in Tunisia


10/18 Turkey, Syria, and the U.S.

On Wednesday, October 9th, Turkish forces swept into northeast Syria, targeting Kurdish strongholds. The attack followed an announcement from President Trump that he would be withdrawing American troops from the area, and that the U.S. would not stand in Turkey’s way. This turn of events is of major consequence for the Kurds, for Syrian refugees living in Turkey, for the U.S.’s relationship to its allies, and for ISIS fighters currently held prisoner in detention camps in northern Syria--to name just a few of the impacted parties. At this week’s salon, we will discuss these events, with an eye to historical context, and to political and humanitarian stakes. 

Suggested readings:

Why is Turkey invading northeast Syria?
Turkey’s Erdogan Threatens EU with Wave of Refugees if It Doesn’t Support Syria Offensive
Trump’s Muddled Syria Policy Opens the Way for More War in the Middle East
Turkey’s incursion in Syria may leave its own economy wounded
Tens of Thousands of Civilians Flee Turkish Offensive in Syria 
The War for Post-US Syria Has Begun
Kurds, Turkey and the U.S.: 5 Years of Tension, Alliances, and Conflict


10/11 Religious Freedom in the Middle East and Beyond (CANCELED DUE TO POWER OUTAGE)

On 23 September, UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief Ahmed Shaheed released a report on the “Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance.” The report notes the rise of anti-Semitism worldwide, pointing to the fatal attacks on synagogues in Pittsburgh and San Diego. The rise of anti-Semitism can also be linked to the rise of religious intolerance across the globe, from the persecution of Yazidis to attacks on Coptic churches in Egypt and on mosques in Canada, New Zealand, and Norway. In this week’s Salon, we will discuss the freedom of belief (or non-belief) at home and abroad. 

Suggested readings:

Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance
A Closer Look at How Religious Restrictions Have Risen Around the World
In 2016, Emergency Laws Restricted Religious Freedoms of Muslims More than Other Groups
Canadian Student Pleads Guilty to Killing Six Men in Mosque Shooting
One Dead in Synagogue Shooting Near San Diego; Officials Call It Hate Crime
Iran: Arrests, Harassment of Baha’is
Egypt: Gunmen Kill Seven Coptic Christians in Bus Ambush
Nadia Murad Nobel Lecture on Yazidis

10/04  Protests in Egypt

On Friday, September 20, protests erupted in cities across Egypt. The apparent trigger was a series of online videos posted by Mohamed Ali, a former actor and contractor, now living abroad. Based on his experience as a contractor for the Egyptian military, Ali is accusing President el-Sisi of major corruption. In response to the protests, hundreds of Egyptians have been arrested. Yet Ali continues to publish videos, and videos from other figures have appeared with further accusations. Why have these videos gained such traction? Is this a continuation of the so-called Arab Spring, or is this something different? Join us for a discussion of the recent protests, their causes, and what we imagine for Egypt’s near future.

Suggested readings:

Egyptian protesters to press for President el-Sisi’s ouster
Hundreds of Egyptians arrested in latest wave of protests against Sisi. 
Shoot, post and share: The viral accusations against Sisi and the military that led to Friday’s protests. 
Egypt Protests Came as a Total Shock. The Man Behind Them is Just as Surprising. 
‘We’re a mess’: Egypt’s economic woes fuel anger against el-Sisi. 
Egypt’s Economy Isn’t Booming. It’s Collapsing.

09/20  The Israeli Elections

Although Israel held elections just six months ago, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s inability to form a coalition government due to tensions between ultra-Orthodox and secular parties has forced Israel to hold another election on 17 September. While Netanayhu, Israel’s longest-serving prime minister, hopes to be reelected, former defense minister and leader of the Yisrael Beiteinu party Avigdor Lieberman has emerged as a frontrunner. In what some analysts argue is an attempt to earn votes, Netanyahu announced this week that if elected he would officially annex large swaths of the occupied Jordan Valley. For their part, Palestinian citizens of Israel wonder if they should boycott the elections all together, given their comparative lack of democratic freedoms in Israel. Join us for a discussion of the diverse issues shaping the upcoming Israeli elections. 

Suggested readings:

Israelis Return to the Polls in an Election that Nobody Wanted
Should Palestinian Citizens of Israel Boycott the Israeli Elections?
Netanyahu Vows to Annex Large Parts of Occupied West Bank
Palestinians in Jordan Valley: ‘Our Lands Are Already Annexed
How the Rising Power of the Arab Electorate is Thwarting Netanyahu
How Jewish Should the Israeli State Be?

09/13  Iran, Israel and the US

In recent months, tensions between the US and Iran have escalated. The US has imposed new economic sanctions, while Iran has announced that it will deliberately violate aspects of the previously agreed upon nuclear deal. These tensions are linked, as recent news reports have shown, to the US’s relationship with Israel, and to the conflict between Israel and Iran. How do these three parties relate to one another, and how do their foreign policy decisions relate to domestic issues within each country? We will discuss these ongoing issues in this week’s salon.

Suggested readings:

The Secret History of the Push to Strike Iran
Iran further breaches nuclear deal, says it can exceed 20% enrichment
Netanyahu Braces for a Warming of Ties Between Trump and Tehran
The Systemic Problem of Iran Expertise in Washington
Hezbollah, Israel losing red lines

09/06 Summer in Review

Join us for the first MENA Salon of the Fall 2019 semester, as we revisit the events and themes that shaped this summer. This semester's weekly salon will be led by Britt Dawson, PhD student in Anthropology, and Anna Levett, recent PhD in Comparative Literature from UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Suggested readings:
Morsi’s death in Egypt puts diminished Muslim Brotherhood back in spotlight
Libya Tragedy: Why Lock up Migrants in the First Place?
The Israel-Iran Shadow War Escalates and Breaks Into the Open
U.K. Joins U.S.-Led Effort to Protect Ships in Straight of Hormuz
From Algeria to Sudan, a New Lease of Life for Arab Springs
In Tlaib’s Ancestral Village, Grandmother Weathers a Global Political Storm
‘We feel empowered’: Saudi women relish their new freedoms




05/03  Reflections on Egyptian-Turkish Relations

Egypt and Turkey’s relations since 2011 have had both change and strain. For our last salon of the semester, former Egyptian Ambassador to Turkey, Abdul-Rahman Salah will be our guest. We will discuss his experiences in the field and the future of Egyptian-Turkish relations. Food and refreshments will be provided.

Suggested readings:

An overview of Turkish-Egyptian relations since the Arab Uprising
Turkey-Egypt relations may gain new momentum built on 'cobra diplomacy'
Egypt rebukes Turkey in spat with EU after executions
Turkish extradition raises fear among Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood exiles
Turkey’s Economic Woes Raise Tensions in Egypt
Interview: Ambassador Abdel-Rahman Salah on tumultuous Egyptian-Turkish relations

04/26 Revolution in Sudan and Algeria

Over the past few weeks, the people of Sudan and Algeria have ousted their leaders after decades of rule, in the hopes of forming more democratic societies. Yet the bloodless ouster of Bouteflika and al-Bashir is the beginning of a long and fraught process. Revolution in Sudan and Algeria can easily evoke comparison to the revolutionary change that swept through the region in 2010 and 2011. Those uprisings, termed the ‘Arab Spring,’ raised hopes of political and economic reform, but, in countries such as Egypt, the army quickly swept in and capitalized on the revolution to widen its power. Now, Egyptians are in the process of voting for constitutional amendments that will extend Sisi’s rule until at least 2024. Sudanese and Algerians have been weary of the military’s involvement and have maintained their ground, demanding civilian rule. During this week’s salon, we will take a comparative approach of revolution to discuss the differences of Sudan and Algeria to the uprisings of 2010 and 2011. 

Suggested readings:

The art of revolution: What went right in Sudan and Algeria
Sudan and Algeria have ousted leaders, but revolutions rarely end happily
Arab Spring comes later in Sudan and Algeria
Sudan and Algeria’s dilemma: How to avoid turning into Egypt
Protesters in Sudan and Algeria Have Learned From the Arab Spring
How the military piggybacked on populist uprisings in Algeria and Sudan
Arab Spring Again? Christians in Sudan and Algeria Cheer Regime Changes
Egypt bucks trend with vote to extend Sisi rule
Sudan’s Revolution and the Geopolitics of Human Rights

04/12  Turkey's Municipal Elections: A New Beginning?

Turkey held municipal elections on Sunday March 31st after a highly polarized campaigning process, spearheaded by the People’s Alliance of Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party and Devlet Bahceli’s Nationalist Action Party. Being the first elections after the new presidential regime’s consolidation, intensified by divisive rhetoric, and held at a time where the country is shaken by a fluctuating currency and undergoing an economic recession, the elections came to be treated as a litmus test for the People's Alliance. To the surprise of many, the opposing Nation Alliance seems to have succeeded in gaining control of five out of the six most populated metropolitan municipalities in the country. Among these are Istanbul and Ankara, which have shaped Erdogan’s political career and have been ruled by candidates of Erdogan’s JDP. Similar to the 2018 general elections, strategic alliances among parties have played a significant role. Pro-Kurdish People’s Democratic Party’s imprisoned ex-chair, Selahattin Demirtas, encouraged voting, which has been especially effective for oppositional candidates in Western provinces. The elections aftermath is still underway, and the results may have widespread national and international effects. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss the latest developments, as well as address what implications the elections may carry for Turkey's political future.  

Suggested readings:

A Wake-Up Call for President Erdogan 
Turkey’s elections show the limits of Erdogan’s nationalism 
Daylight in Turkey? 
Local election defeat bodes more foreign woes for Erdogan 
Erdogan’s challenger? Hope behind the man close to becoming Istanbul’s new mayor
Turkey AK party rulers are bad losers, says election “winner” Imamoglu 
Erdogan’s AKP challenges defeat in Istanbul- and erects banners claiming victory 
Ekrem Imamoglu: a unifying political force to take on Erdogan 
HDP MP Paylan: Not a Single Objection by HDP is Accepted Throughout Turkey

04/05 The Christchurch Massacre and responses from MENA

On March 15th 2019, a self-claimed white nationalist walked into a mosque in Christchurch, New Zealand killing and wounding scores of worshippers during the Friday prayer. As the massacre sent shockwaves around the world, leaders responded with condolences and grief, looking to Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern as an exemplary leader. Political and religious leaders throughout MENA also responded in a variety of ways to the attack--through grief, protest and even political calculations. Some voiced concerns about the hesitancy to identify a rising white supremacist terror phenomenon, while others, such as Turkish President Erdogan, used parts of the livestreamed video of the massacre during his campaign rally in the eve of upcoming local elections, further stoking anti-Western rhetoric. During this week's salon, we will attend to the global Islamophobia and grief over the Christchurch massacre of Muslims, among whom were Syrian refugees, and discuss the responses from throughout Middle East and North Africa. 

Suggested readings:

Muslim World Decries Islamophobia After 49 Killed in New Zealand Mosque Shootings
Turkish President Stokes Anti-Western Rhetoric Over New Zealand Killings
New Zealand, Australia outraged over Erdogan’s remarks on Christchurch attacks
After Christchurch, Muslims ask: Are we safe in the West?
A Syrian refugee and his son are first victims to be buried in Christchurch
White entitlement is part of the very structure of Australian society
The Christchurch attacks and white-nationalist discourse
Christchurch Mosque Attacks: A Public Syllabus

03/22  Young and Restless in MENA

Algeria’s recent revolutionary developments have been spearheaded by youth protesters. Across the region, countries face serious challenges in the face of burgeoning young populations, and more importantly, their unmet political, socio-cultural and economic expectations. This youth demographic has become a social burden on the national economies of the region, especially when paired with increasing austerity measures and rising unemployment. In the past decade, the youth in the MENA region has emerged as both an agent of social change and a vulnerable demographic segment in the context of political unresponsiveness and economic volatility. In this week's Salon, we step back from keeping tabs on the ever-changing pulse of MENA countries to think more broadly about a demographic category, which cuts across every country in the region and shapes their respective futures.

Suggested readings:

Algeria’s angry youth ready to rise up to topple ailing president
Youth employment in the Middle East and North Africa: Revisiting and reframing the challenge 
Egypt in desperate bid to curb birth rate as population nears 100 million 
How Tourism is Creating Opportunity for Millions of Unemployed Arab Women and Youth 
Iraq baby boom, exacerbates bleak prospects for nation’s youth 
How Arab world youth countered repression using social media, pop culture 
Middle East youth and tech: What’s happened since the Arab Spring? 
Youth Unemployment: The Middle East’s Ticking Time Bomb  
The Demographics Behind the Middle East’s ‘Youth Driven Wave of Political Unrest’

03/15   Indictment and Controversy: Netanyahu and the Upcoming Israeli Elections

On February 28, Israel’s Attorney General, Avichai Mandelblit, announced his plans to indict Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in three criminal cases, including one charge of bribery. The cases against Netanyahu range from gift-giving and receiving from multimillionaires to bribing the owner of a digital-media outlet with regulatory favors in exchange for favorable coverage. Despite such plans from the Attorney General, Netanyahu has yet to be indicted. Israeli elections are set to take place on April 9, and there is still a chance he could win. If indicted, Netanyahu has pledged not to resign, and has told the press that the legal case against him is a ploy by his leftist opponents to topple his right-wing government and new coalition. Israel’s far-right party Habayit Hayehudi has accepted an offer from Netanyahu to join forces with Otzma Yehudit, a far right extremist party led by followers of Rabbi Meir Kahane. Israel’s election committee has approved far-right party involvement in the upcoming parliamentary elections, but have banned a leftist Arab-Israeli coalition, adding to controversy leading up to the April 9th election. During this week’s salon, we will discuss the upcoming Israeli elections and what this means for the region.

Suggested reading:
The End Is Nigh for Netanyahu 
Potential indictment leaves Israelis wondering if this is the beginning of the end for Netanyahu
Election 2019: The One Where Liberal Israelis Fantasize About Being Ruled by a Gang of Generals 
Netanyahu’s election rivals merge as Israeli leader makes pact with extreme right  
Kahane in, Arabs out: Israeli election panel disqualifies Palestinian party calling for equality, approves racist Jewish Power leader 
Far-rightists cleared for Israel election, Arab party blocked 
Palestinians are not particularly interested in the Israeli elections
Israeli Elections and the Big, Fat Palestinian Elephant in the Room 

03/08   Protest and Demands for Change in Algeria

Last week, thousands of Algerians took to the streets in response to the announcement made by the ruling National Liberation Front (FLN) party that President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, 81, would be seeking a fifth term in office after ruling the country uninterruptedly for two decades. The president has rarely been seen in public since a stroke incapacitated him in 2013 and the protests have been taking place despite being officially banned in the country since 2001. Having suffered from a bloody civil war between 1991-2002, the Algerian protests of the Arab Spring in 2011 resulted in a limited expansion of civil rights. Algerian politics have been criticized to be dominated by an oligarchical clique of veterans from the war of independence, and the overwhelmingly young population have become increasingly frustrated by stark economic pressures. Is political change a possibility in Algeria and what could it look like? What have we learned from the other cases in the region? In next week's salon we will discuss Algerian politics and economy against the background of ongoing social upheaval. 

Recommended reading:

Algeria’s Bouteflika: ‘Abov the law and above the state’
Algerians take to the streets over president’s plan to seek fifth term
Algerians have been out in force against their president’s bid for a fifth term
Algeria gambles on old captain to chart new waters
Algerian Demonstrations: What They Mean for the Future of the Elite and the Country
Presidential election: Contested Candidacy in Algeria
Algeria breaks the wall of fear
Algeria protesters share hope and humour on Twitter


03/01   The Israel Lobby and Anti-Semitism

In February, Ilhan Omar, the first of two American Muslim women elected to the US House of Representatives, went under-fire from Democrats and Republicans. Omar tweeted “It’s all about the Benjamins baby” in response to the move of Republican House minority leader Kevin McCarthy to seek formal sanctions against Omar and fellow congresswomen Rashida Tlaib for their criticism of Israel’s occupation of Palestine and their support for the Boycott, Divest, Sanctions (BDS) movement. Omar later clarified that her tweet referred to the like of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee or AIPAC, the most powerful pro-Israel lobbying organization. AIPAC mobilized against Omar, suggesting her tweet played into anti-Semitic tropes. Other members of Congress followed suit—both Republican and Democrat. In its aftermath, a debate has re-opened around criticism of Israel and its conflation with anti-Semitism. During this week’s salon, we will discuss different sides of this debate, focusing on how concerns for Palestinian civil rights and the state of Israel get represented in/make inroads into current American political life.

Recommended reading:

Ilhan Omar’s ‘Benjamins’ tweet storm: ‘Criticising AIPAC is not anti-Semitic’
No, Ilhan Omar Is Not Anti-Semitic For Calling Out AIPAC
Ilhan Omar Just Made It Harder To Have a Nuanced Debate About Israel
We must thank Ilhan Omar for opening a debate about AIPAC at last
The Ilhan Omar Controversy Reveals a Larger Struggle Over Israel Among Democrats
Ilhan Omar’s tweet revealed core truths about anti-Semitism in America
What’s Anti-Semitic?
What Ilhan Omar Said About AIPAC Was Right


02/22   The 40th Anniversary of the Islamic Revolution

This year, February 11 marked the 40th anniversary of the “Islamic Revolution” in Iran, accompanied by nationwide rallies commemorating the series of uprisings that took place in 1979, which led to the overthrowing of the monarchy. On the one hand, Iran’s “revolutionary regime” has prevailed, among demands for regime change and democratic reform. Political slogans remain as zealous as the first day of the revolution, and current presidents of Iran and the US openly exchange their hostility.  On the other hand, under the unique dynamics of its regime and economic constraints, Iranian society has continued to engage with the larger world, even under foreign and domestic pressures. In next week’s Salon, against the background set by the past four decades, we will discuss the transformation and stability of Iranian society and politics, while considering its economic turbulences and changing role as a regional power in MENA. 

Recommended reading:

Iran marks 40th anniversary of Islamic Revolution
Iran's president calls Trump 'idiot' as crowds chant "death to America"
The Iranian Revolution Turns Forty: Dare to Know, Have the Courage to Act!
See the Iranian Revolution as Iranians Do
On 40th anniversary of Iranian revolution, Rouhani says country will not give up military power
'The Shah is gone': Revisiting the Iranian revolution 40 years later
The Iran revolution at 40: From Theocracy to 'Normality'
The Legacies of the Iranian Revolution at 40
After 40 years, is Iran's revolution unravelling?
Access to article written by a frequent Salon attendee and contributor, Dr. Mahmoud Monshipouri, can be found here.


02/15  Mass Protests in Sudan: another "spring"?

Protests have been sweeping Sudan since December 2018, which began as a reaction rising prices and skyrocketing inflation, after Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir’s government followed International Monetary Fund’s recommendations to cut wheat and fuel subsidies. However, similar to the contemporary cases across the Middle East and North Africa, the protests evolved into a means for expressing the grave discontent against long-standing political turmoil, associated with al-Bashir's three-decade rule. In fact, on a recent trip to Egypt to meet el-Sisi, al-Bashir criticized the protests as attempts to copy the “so-called ‘Arab Spring’ for Sudan.” Unsurprisingly, the government has cracked down on the protests, resulting in tens of people killed and hundreds arrested, while Sudan's people still struggle with daily economic hardships. In this week’s salon, we will focus on the developments in Sudan to better understand its present dynamics and possible consequences.

Recommended reading:

‘It’s more than bread’: Why are protests in Sudan happening?
‘They came for blood’: A month of Sudan protests in face of crackdown
Opinion | The Strong and Beautiful Message of Sudan's Young Protesters
Sudan's Bashir fights for survival as protests spread
Bashir says Sudan protesters trying to emulate Arab Spring
The revolution in Sudan: let it fall
The dead Sudanese singer inspiring revolt against Omar el-Bashir
Sudan's university professors leave country to flee poverty
UAE, Russia and Turkey pledge to aid Sudan amid ongoing protests
Sudan's Bashir softens tone dramatically, says reporters to be released

02/08 Western Arms Sales and Human Rights in the Middle East

On January 27, French President Emmanuel Macron began his first official visit to Egypt. The meeting of Macron and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi solidified a strategic relationship between France, as one of Egypt's main arms suppliers, and Egypt, described by Macron as a bulwark against terrorism. Human rights activists have criticized France's continued support for the Sisi regime, despite violations and repression. Although Macron has acknowledged Egypt's human rights violations, France has continued to support Sisi's crackdown on civil society through investment and military arms sales. Across the Middle East, France's weapons sales have grown, in spite of criticism from France's own lawmakers and rights groups. From Sisi's crackdown in Egypt to the recent American support for Saudi Arabia following the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, Western powers have shifted discourse away from human rights promotion to economic investment and increased arms sales to fight terrorism. In this week's salon, we will discuss Western arms sales and human rights in Egypt and around the Middle East. 

Recommended reading:

Macron's Trip to Egypt: A Message to the West
How French Weapons Enable Egypt's Abuses
Despite criticism at home, French arms sales double in the Middle East
Humans Rights Activists Accused of Spreading 'False News' After Meeting with Macron
Sisi tells Macron that Egypt is not Europe
Egypt abuses put French military deals in spotlight as Macron heads to Cairo
Controversial French and German arms sales to Middle East in spotlight
Support for Human Rights in the Arab World: A Shifting and Inconsistent Picture

02/01 60,000 Political Prisoners and a New Cathedral: Is Sisi's Egypt Sustainable?

January 25 marked the 8th anniversary of the Egyptian revolution. On Coptic Christmas Eve, January 6, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi was interviewed by 60 Minutes' Scott Pelley in which he denied the existence of over 60,000 political prisoners in the country's prisons. The Egyptian government tried to block the interview from airing, to no avail. The interview was aired the same evening Sisi inaugurated the Middle East's largest cathedral in the new administrative capital east of Cairo, a day after a deadly bomb blast near a Cairo church. Despite domestic and international praise for such a move, its inauguration comes in a context where Sisi has sought greater authoritarian control. Egyptian courts are now considering whether the country's parliament can discuss constitutional amendments allowing Sisi to stay in power after the end of his second term in 2022. This week's salon will take a closer look at Egypt's political turmoil. 

Recommended reading:

Egypt adjourns hearing on consititutional change to extend Sisi tenure
CBS broadcasts Sisi interview despite Egypt request not to air it
The real reason Egypt tried to squash Sisi's '60 Minutes' interview
Sisi Isn't Mubarak. He's Much Worse
Egypt builds Middle East's largest cathedral; but what about smaller churches?
Egypt’s Coptic Christians
Between the hammer of an authoritarian regime and the anvil of terrorism
Sisi's continuous coup in Egypt
Egypt's Sisi Has Established Brutal Authority, but Not a Secure Regime



01/25 Trouble with the US Withdrawal from Syria

President Trump’s maneuver to withdraw US forces from Syria sparked a new diplomatic brawl with Turkey. Inevitably, the plan raised questions about its effects on Syrian Kurds and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria. Triggering global confusion, Trump threatened Turkey with economic devastation unless a 20 mile safe zone was created on the Northern Syria border. The withdrawal decision was further complicated by the killing of four Americans in a suicide attack in Manbij claimed by ISIS--after the organization had been deemed "defeated." In this week’s Salon, we will continue our discussion on Syria through a focus on Turkey. 

Recommended reading:
For Turkey's strongman Erdoğan, trouble seeing eye to eye with Trump
Syria's Kurdish fighters ready to help set up 'safe zone'
Turkey, US discuss Syria buffer zone as Manbij attack kills American troops
Turkey has good reason to be wary of a US withdrawal from Syria
Trump’s Syria pullout plan pushes Turkey closer to Russia
Trump’s Middle East Strategy and the Kurds | National Review
Turkey’s threat to Kurds demands US protection
A 'security zone' in northern Syria? Easier said than done

01/18 A Middle East New Deal? US Withdrawal from Syria

In December, President Trump ordered the withdrawal of all US forces in Syria, believed to number around 2,000. His announcement, which came after a phone call with Turkish President Erdogan, has been criticized on a number of fronts. On January 10, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo delivered an address at the American University in Cairo, which aimed to reassure regional partners that a withdrawal from Syria does not mean that American power is leaving the Middle East. The first salon of the semester will focus on what Trump’s shifting Middle East policy has meant for the region.

Recommended reading:
Pompeo’s Cairo speech revealed the total incoherence of Trump’s policy
Pompeo and his bible define U.S. policy in the Middle East
The black hole in Pompeo’s speech: Saudi Arabia
Contradicting Trump, Bolton says no withdrawal from Syria until ISIS destroyed, Kurds’ safety guaranteed
Trump’s Syria withdrawal (if there is one), explained
Trump’s Syria withdrawal shows how hard it is to end US military intervention
In the Middle East, is Trump the anti-Obama or Obama 2.0?
Turkish ultimatum to Trump: pull out of Syria or we strike

10/26 International Fallout After Khashoggi Disappearance

As new details emerge in the disappearance and alleged murder of Saudi journalist, Jamal Khashoggi, fallout from technology companies, investment firms, art institutions, and Western political ties has grown. Those who have seen Saudi Crown Prince, Mohammad bin Salman (MBS), as a reformer and game changer have scrambled to address the diplomatic and public relations blow back. The disappearance of Khashoggi and the previous detention and reported torture of dozens of Saudis in the Ritz Carlton in Riyadh back in 2017 comes into sharp relief with the promoted economic reforms and liberalization of Saudi society. In light of this fallout, what are we to make of this international outrage, particularly from Western politicians with close financial ties and economic investments in the stability and prosperity of the Kingdom? Why has the Khashoggi case drawn such international ire in ways the prolonged and brutal Saudi assault on Yemen has not? In this week’s salon, we will delve deeper into this case and what it means for the region and Saudi’s international players.

Recommended reading:
Khashoggi and the Myth of the ‘Liberal’ Middle East Crown Princes (subscription required)
Praying for Jamal Khashoggi
How One Journalist’s Death Provoked a Backlash That Thousands Dead in Yemen Did Not
Major Art Institutions Navigate Ties to Saudi Arabia After Disappearance of Journalist
The challenge of reporting the Khashoggi story
Khashoggi affair unlikely to derail Saudi Arabia index inclusion
“The Dirtiest Money on Earth.” Silicon Valley Has a Saudi Arabia Problem.
Silicon Valley hoped the Khashoggi story would go away; instead, it may end an era
‘It would be bad for our interests’: why Thatcher ignored the murder of an Observer journalist

10/19 Death, Disappearance, Jail, and Exile: Dissidence and journalism

International news media has focused on the recent disappearance and alleged execution of a dissident Saudi journalist, Jamal Khashoggi, at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul by Saudi officials. Jamal Khashoggi, also known as Cemal Kasikci, did not have a long track record as a “dissident” journalist, but was known as of late to be in an inevitable exile as he had grown increasingly critical of the current Saudi government. What happened to Jamal Khashoggi? If the allegations are true, what does the incident imply for the state of journalism and voices of opposition in the Middle East? Is it simply a continuation of ongoing suppression of dissidence all over the Middle East, including countries like Egypt and Turkey? How will these incidents continue to shape the relationships of regional and international powers? In the next salon, we will discuss these questions and the stakes of journalism and freedom of speech in the Middle East.

Recommended Reading:
Jamal Khashoggi: The emergence of Saudi dissident, and his potentially tragic end
Opinion | Read Jamal Khashoggi’s columns for The Washington Post
Commentary: How Khashoggi’s disappearance could change Middle East…
Saudi Women Who Fought for the Right to Drive Are Disappearing and Going Into…
U.S. raises pressure on Saudi Arabia over missing journalist
Khashoggi Case Raises Tensions Between Saudi Prince and Turkish President
Erdogan’s Turkey: The world’s biggest prison for journalists | Opinion
Egypt’s jailed journalists: In numbers

10/12 Yemen’s Continuing War

Two weeks ago, the UN Human Rights Council, overriding the objections of Saudi Arabia and its allies, voted to continue an investigation by a panel of international experts into the war in Yemen. This comes in the wake of a recent cholera outbreak, with roughly 10,000 new cases each week, and increasing civilian casualties. The humanitarian crisis in Yemen has been aided by the United States’ continued support for Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in their campaigns against Houthi rebels. While this support has been ongoing since the Obama administration, the Trump administration has seen the Houthis as the same sort of threat as other Iranian-backed groups in the region. While local factors in Yemen have been at play in the prolonging of the brutal conflict, recent geopolitical developments have aided in sustaining and ramping up military campaigns, leading to an increased number of civilian casualties and a worsening humanitarian crisis. During this week’s salon, we will look into recent developments in Yemen and discuss current geopolitical factors that have prolonged the conflict.

Recommended reading:
The United States Could End the War in Yemen If It Wanted To
Yemen War Investigation Is Extended by U.N. Council
U.S. approach to Yemen is challenged as country splinters and government vanishes
‘This shouldn’t be happening': Civilian deaths spike in Yemen
‘A million more’ Yemen children face famine
West Right to ‘Collude’ With Saudi Arabia on Yemen Crisis
America is not an Innocent Bystander in Yemen
Yemen cholera outbreak accelerates to 10,000+ cases per week: WHO

10/05 Troubled Times for Iran

Two weeks ago, a parade of the Revolutionary Guards was attacked by undercover militants in the city of Ahvaz, which resulted in dozens of casualties. In addition to various groups claiming responsibility for the attacks, Iran’s leaders were quick to accuse Gulf countries and the US as the perpetrators of the attack, and threatened to respond. Continuing the sharp detour from the Obama-era rapprochement policy, in his hawkish speech at UN, President Trump urged world countries to join his government’s efforts to isolate Iran through economic sanctions. Meanwhile, Iran continues to exert its influence on Syria and Iraq as a regional player. All of these developments are taking place amidst an economic crisis in the country. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will try to understand these latest developments and their implications for Iran, for the region, and for other major players.

Recommended Reading:
Significance of attack on military parade in Iran
Iran attack shows opponents see ‘unique opportunity,’ experts say
Trump takes aim at Iran in defiant UN speech
President Trump’s Efforts to Isolate Iran at the U.N. Backfired
What does Iran want in northern Syria?
Yes, Iran’s Economy is Suffering–But It’s Not All About the U.S.
Fears rise in Iran as currency crash causes chaos

09/28 25 Years On: The Legacy of the Oslo Accords

This month marks the 25th anniversary of the first Oslo Accords. The historic handshake exchanged between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, under the supervision of US President Bill Clinton in Washington, DC, was anticipated to provide a timeline for the Palestinian-Israeli peace process. Yet, the mutual political will demonstrated during the talks could not prevent immediate bitter reaction arising among other players from the both sides of the conflict. 25 years after the first Accords, the shared verdict is that the opportunity for establishing peace has been lost. In this week’s MENA Salon, we aim to discuss the current condition of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, and the peace-process. What has been the legacy of the Oslo Accords? Was it ever a viable beginning for peace? Is “peace” possible?

Recommended reading:
25 Years After Oslo Accords, Mideast Peace Seems Remote as Ever
The Veiled Danger of the ‘Dead’ Oslo Accords
Palestine, Israel and the Oslo Accords: What you need to know
No One Will Be Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the Oslo Accords
Oslo at 25: Why Palestinians Like Me See No Hope for Peace
I advised the Palestinian Negotiating Team, It Was a Mistake to Have Negotiated With Israel at All

09/21 Egypt Five Years After Rabaa 

August 15th marked the fifth anniversary of the massacre at Cairo’s Rabaa and Nahda Squares, in which Egyptian security forces killed at least 800 people. An Egyptian court on Saturday September 8 issued its final verdict upholding the death sentences of 75 Muslim Brotherhood members and supporters for their participation in the Rabaa and Nahda sit-ins following the ouster of former President Mohamed Morsy. In the same week, the US announced it will release 1.2 billion dollars in military aid to Egypt, despite concerns for its human rights record. Amidst Egypt’s highest economic growth in a decade as well as austerity measures, the political landscape looks bleak. During this week’s salon, we will discuss Egypt’s current economic growth, as well as deepening social discontent in light of anniversary of the Rabaa massacre.

Recommended reading:

Trump called Egypt’s Sissi “a f***ing killer” after striking partnership, book claims
Egyptian court upholds death sentences for 75 people over 2013 demonstration
A Day After Trump Pledges $1 Billion in Aid, Egypt Sentences American Citizen to…
Egypt can handle the emerging markets downturn ‘up to a limit,’ finance minister says
US Releases Aid to Egypt Amid Human Rights Concerns
‘Six months after my deportation from Egypt, I’m facing some sad truths about the…
Commentary: Five myths about U.S. aid to Egypt

09/14 Saudi Arabia: Image and Reality in an Era of Reform 

Since Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman took power in June 2017, Saudi Arabia has become the center of international media attention on its new found reform agenda–from granting women the right to drive, effective in June 2018, to restricting the powers of the religious police, to new found connections and investments between the Kingdom and Silicon Valley. These reforms have not come without their critics. Many have grown skeptical in the face of the 2017 crackdown on corruption, leading to the house arrest of many prominent figures in the royal family, the continued and intensified war on Yemen, and the arrests of numerous women’s rights activists. During this week’s Salon, we will delve deeper into recent developments in the era of reform in the Kingdom.

Recommended reading:
Saudi Vision 2030
Opinion | Crazy Poor Middle Easterners
Strange Bedfellows: Saudi Arabia and Tesla Inc.
Xenophobia, tribalism and imagined enemies: Mohammed bin Salman’s brand of Saudi nationalism
Why Donald Trump and Mohammed Bin Salman need each other, even as U.S.-Saudi relations…
Saudi Arabia Seeks Death Penalty in Trial of Outspoken Cleric
Opinion: Saudi Arabia’s reforms expand the space for women–but still deny…

09/07 Turkey’s Economic Turbulence & Rift with US

For many, the anticipated Turkish presidential election in June was going to mark the beginning of a new era and calm financial markets. But the Turkish economy has worsened after the spat with the United States over the fate of North Carolina Pastor Andrew Brunson, imprisoned in October 2016 in Turkey over alleged ties to the Gulen movement. The Turkish lira continues its nose-dive and a US-Turkey trade war has erupted. Does Turkey’s government have a plan? Does it have the resources and credibility to survive this turmoil? This week’s salon delves deeper into this crisis.

Recommended reading:

The US-Turkey trade spat, explained
Anti-Americanism rises in Turkey as US-Turkish tensions escalate
Erdogan, Trump, and the strongman politics devastating Turkey’s economy
Erdogan to Turkey: The West is waging ‘economic war’
Trump and Erdogan: compare and contrast
Can Qatar and Germany save Turkey’s economy?
Turkey’s crisis exposes the perils of strongman rule

08/31 Summer In Review

Join us for the first MENA Salon of the Fall 2018 semester, as we revisit the events and themes that shaped this summer. This year’s weekly salon will be led by Candace Lukasik, PhD candidate in Anthropology at UC Berkeley, and Deniz Ilhan, PhD candidate in Sociology at Stony Brook University.

Recommended reading:

Even with Mo Salah, Egypt can’t catch a break
Murder in monastery reverberates in Coptic Church
How Saudi-Canada Spat exposed Bin Salman
Why ultra-nationalists exceeded expectations in Turkey
Israel picks identity over democracy. Others may follow
Hidden Wounds of Yemen’s War


5/4 Year In Review

Join us for the final MENA Salon of the semester, as we revisit the events and themes that shaped this academic year.


4/27 Belonging and Exclusion: Mizrahi Communities in Israel

On April 2, the Israeli government scrapped a deal with the United Nations to grant thousands of African migrants and asylum seekers legal residency. In the last few weeks, IDF gunfire has killed dozens and wounded hundreds of Palestinians attempting to “return” to Israel by marching on Gaza’s border-barrier. Events over the past month have raised a profound question about contemporary Israel: who belongs? The question is as old as the Middle East’s mandate system, and the answer has been contested by a plethora of identity groups West of the Jordan River over the past century. This week’s MENA Salon is about the predicament of one community among this multitude: Jewish people of Middle Eastern and North African descent. We will consider how experiences of persecution, displacement, resettlement, and discrimination have shaped Mizrahi perspectives on belonging in the region.

Recommended reading:

Israel’s migrant problem: It’s not just about Africans
Israeli series exposes raw wounds from ethnic Jewish divide
Leaving paradise
In Morocco, exploring remnants of Jewish history
From Israel, a Jewish singer with Arab roots revives the music of his family’s past
Miri Regev’s culture war 


4/20 A Chemical Attack and Airstrikes in Syria

On April 7, approximately 70 people were killed in a chemical attack in the Syrian town of Douma. Responding to the attack one week later, the Trump administration, together with Britain and France, launched airstrikes against the Assad regime. Events in Syria over the past two weeks have ignited a diplomatic firestorm and raised a number of questions about action against the Syrian government. What were the airstrikes meant to accomplish? Will they alter the course of Syria’s Civil War? Will they have an impact on international relations and law? We will consider these and other questions in this week’s MENA Salon.

Recommended reading:

What we know about the suspected chemical weapon attack in East Ghouta
Expert views: Impact of the Syrian missile strike
“Too little, too late:” What Douma refugees think of US strikes on Syria
Syria has paid a terrible price for the west’s disastrous policy of doing nothing
Russia’s “madman” routine in Syria may have averted direct confrontation with the U.S., for now
No, US strikes on Syria will not start World War III
Bad legal arguments for the Syria strikes


4/13 IDF Fires on Palestinians at the Gaza Border

On March 30, about 30,000 Palestinians demonstrated along border of the Gaza Strip to commemorate a 1976 Arab-Israeli general strike and to demand entry into Israel. Members of the Israeli Defense Forces fired live ammunition at the protestors as they marched on the border, leaving 18 Palestinians dead and many more wounded. More protests are planned along the border in April. These developments raise a number of pressing questions. What factors are spurring these protests? What is driving the Israeli government response? How should the United States respond? Will the violence along the border continue to escalate? We will consider these and other questions in this week’s MENA Salon.

Recommended reading:
Israel and Gaza Brace for Round 2 of Protests at Border Fence
With Riots and Live Fire, Gaza Just Went 25 Years Back in Time
When it comes to Gaza, hold your fire
Why Israeli soldiers must refuse to fire at unarmed Palestinian protestors
Learning from the past in Gaza
Hamas and the mass protests in Gaza
After the Gaza killings, it’s time to crack down on Israel
Brutality is the only answer Israel has to Gaza’s civil disobedience


4/6 MENA Salon Canceled


3/23 The Fate of the Iran Deal

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson’s removal from the Trump administration on March 13 has raised serious doubts about the future of the Iran Nuclear Deal. Tillerson’s likely replacement is CIA director Mike Pompeo, a staunch opponent of the agreement. In this week’s MENA Salon we will build upon last week’s discussion of nuclear non-proliferation in the Middle East with a focus on the fate of the Iran Deal.

Recommended reading:
Mike Pompeo should talk to Iran. Here’s why.
Can Europe save the Iran nuclear deal?
Trump’s and Pompeo’s path to nuclear crisis
How to save the Iran nuclear deal
The path to a nuclear-free Middle East
Europe, Iran baffled By US position on nuclear deal


3/16 A Nuclear Deal with Saudi Arabia?

On March 2, a delegation led by US Energy Secretary Rick Perry met with Saudi officials in London. The parties opened discussions on a potential deal that would allow the Gulf state to purchase nuclear power plants from American contractors. The prospect of a nuclear cooperation agreement between the US and Saudi Arabia raises a number of questions. What sparked these negotiations? Would a deal undermine nuclear non-proliferation in the Middle East? How will other regional actors respond? We will consider these and other questions in this week’s MENA Salon.

Recommended reading:
Why Trump might bend nuclear security rules to help Saudi Arabia build reactors in the desert
Don’t give Saudi Arabia an easy path to nukes
Selling Saudis the nuclear rope to hang US
Saudis have leverage to keep uranium enrichment rights in a US nuclear deal
5 myths about Saudi Arabia’s nuclear program


3/9 MENA Salon Canceled


3/2 Press “Freedom” as Diplomacy: Turkish-German Relations

On February 16, a court in Istanbul ordered the release of German-Turkish journalist Deniz Yücel after 366 days of pre-trial detention. Yücel’s release, following months of lobbying by the German government, marks rare good news for jailed journalists in Turkey, which is now ranked the world’s worst jailer of journalists, with around 160 held in detention according to the Turkish Journalists’ Association. What can we learn about German-Turkish relations from Yücel’s release? What was at stake for each country? Under what conditions does a jailed journalist become a bargaining chip between two key regional players? In this week’s MENA Salon, we will reflect on these larger questions using Yücel’s story as a case-study.

Recommended reading:

The long road to freedom for German journalist Yücel
Is Erdogan using imprisoned foreigners as bargaining chips?
Turkey and Germany, a relationship always worth watching
Turkey’s tough tactics with US and Germany will enable it to get its way
Turkey’s effort to repair relations trips over its crackdown


2/23 Corruption In the Middle East

On February 13, Israeli police recommended indicting Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for accepting $300,000 in bribes. Between November and January, the Saudi government detained 381 individuals and seized $106.6 billion as part of an aggressive anti-corruption campaign. For its part, Iraq arrested 290 officials on corruption charges in 2017. What drives government corruption in the Middle East and North Africa? What motivates institutional actors across the region to “crack down” on corruption or to let it slide? And what exactly is government corruption, anyway? We will consider these and other questions in this week’s MENA Salon.

Recommended reading:

Middle East and North Africa: A very drastic decline
Just how rampant is the corruption?
Corruption charges suggested for Netanyahu
Corruption and the limits of conventional approaches
After the Saudi purge: The $106bn question
Corruption in Iraq may threaten reconstruction funds


2/16 Egypt’s Upcoming “Election”

Egyptians are expected to go to the polls next month to vote in the presidential election. However, the process has already been tainted by the suppression of competitors of President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi. What can Egyptians expect from this election? Is it simply window-dressing? Will internal divisions among the power circles rise to the surface? How will resentment towards imprisoned cadres of the Muslim Brotherhood, including ousted president Mohamed Morsi, translate into political action? These are some of the questions we are hoping to address in the next MENA Salon.

Recommended reading:

Egypt’s political parties choose to forgo challenging Sisi
Egypt’s election drama: Sisi’s moment of hollow triumph won’t last
How Egypt presidential election is rendered irrelevant
Egypt’s undemocratic election
Why Egypt’s oldest political party isn’t challenging Al-Sisi
President Trump, condemn this sham Egyptian election 


2/9 No Relief for UNRWA

On January 16, the Trump administration announced that it is withholding $65 million in aid to the United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). Why is the Trump administration cutting funding now? What effects will the shortfall have on Palestine, Israel, and the broader Middle East? What is UNRWA’s mandate and what is its role today? In this week’s MENA Salon we will consider these questions and other queries pertinent to the UN agency and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Recommended reading:
‘It’s a death sentence’: Palestinians in Jerusalem brace for Trump aid cuts
Explaining UNRWA, Trump’s next Mideast hot button
Abrupt U.S. funding cuts to Palestinians could further destabilize Middle East
Trump’s move to slash aid for Palestinian refugees will lead to tragedy
Trump gets UNRWA right
‘Without UNRWA we have nothing’: Palestinian refugees speak out against US aid cuts
Beyond the money: a modest proposal to remake UNRWA


2/2 War Comes to Afrin

On January 20, Turkey launched a military intervention into the Afrin region of Northwestern Syria against the Kurdish-led YPG. The extraordinary attack has opened a new front in Syria’s chaotic civil war and raised tensions between Turkey and its international partners. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss the events leading to the military operation, the international community’s reaction, and its likely consequences for individuals on the ground in Syria.

Recommended reading:
Turkey, Assad offensives bring new displacement crisis in Syria
US policy toward the Levant, Kurds and Turkey
A sustainable U.S. Policy for North Syria, the Kurds, Turkey and the Syrian government
The entirely rational basis for Turkey’s move into Syria
We’re trying to build democracy in Syria. So why is Turkey attacking us?
Will Turkey attack Manbij?


1/26 Rebuilding in Syria

With the Syrian conflict entering its seventh year, Syrians and international actors are beginning to embark upon the immense task of rebuilding portions of the country. As with other facets of the Syrian Civil War, the problem of reconstruction is complicated by the geopolitical considerations of intervening powers. Will states opposing the Assad regime partake in rebuilding civilian infrastructure? Will funding for reconstruction be conditioned on political reform? What role will multilateral organizations play in this process?

Recommended reading:
Syria 2018: 5 key factors to watch
Help Assad or leave cities in ruins? The politics of rebuilding
After the war: Who’s going to pay for Syria’s reconstruction?
Reconstruction spells juicy contracts for Russian, Iranian firms
Ten experts to watch on reconstruction in Syria


1/19 Austerity and Unrest in Tunisia 

Tunisia is often said to be the Arab Spring’s only success story, yet the new year has been marked by economic peril and political uncertainty. The government’s announcement of an austerity budget has led to the largest wave of protests the country has seen during its democratic transition. Hundreds of Tunisians have been arrested by security forces since January 8. In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the recent unrest in Tunisia, and whether or not the government is fulfilling obligations set out under its post-Revolution constitution.

Recommended reading:
‘You can’t survive anymore’: Tunisia protests rising prices and taxes
Stemming Tunisia’s authoritarian drift
Tunisia protests: Is there a trade-off between a strong economy and democracy?
Tunisia’s revolution, Act 2
Tunisia protests: Another heavy dose of austerity
Seven years on: Tunisia’s legacies of neglect


1/12 Protests in Iran

As people across the world planned to ring in the New Year, cities across Iran erupted in the largest wave of protests the country has seen in almost a decade. The unrest, which has carried on into 2018, has prompted a number of debates. Who are the main actors? What are the protesters’ demands? Whom do they target? How are these demonstrations different from the 2009 Green Movement? Will they have an effect on Iran’s domestic and foreign policies? In this first MENA Salon of the spring semester, we will consider these and other pressing questions.

Recommended reading:
Causes behind Iran’s protests: A preliminary account
Misreading Qazvin in Washington: On the protests in Iran
Iranian protests and the working class
These are the real causes of the Iran protests
Why haven’t reformists joined the protests sweeping Iran?
How Rouhani can use protests to advance reform


12/1 Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince

In recent years, 32 year-old Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohamed bin Salman has become a major figure in Middle East politics. He has vowed to curtail corruption and “extremist ideologies” domestically, and has inserted his kingdom into the center of political and military confrontations in Lebanon and Yemen. In October, he led a purge of a number of prominent princes, businessmen, and ministers. In the last MENA Salon of the semester, we will discuss this purge, and the regional transformations the country’s heir apparent hopes to bring about.

Recommended reading:
Saudi Arabia “swaps assets for freedom” after arrests
Saudi Arabia’s anti-corruption purge is all about life after oil
Saudi Arabia has no idea how to deal with Iran
How Riyadh orchestrated its own downfall in Lebanon
Sanitizing bin Salman: How Western media whitewash Saudi violence at home and abroad
Why did Saudi Arabia target billionaire media tycoons in its purge?


11/17 A Century after Balfour

The first week of November marked the centenary of the Balfour Declaration. The British government’s declaration endorsed Zionist aspirations for “a national home” in what would become Mandatory Palestine. In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the content and significance of the Declaration. We will also reflect on the legacy of the document and the ways in which it continues to shape perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Recommended reading:
Protests and celebrations mark Balfour centenary
Contested centenary of Britain’s ‘calamitous promise’
The Balfour Declaration century
After Balfour
Time to party or protest? 
Britain’s true motivation
Why Abbas should endorse Balfour
Time to admit that Balfour was a white supremacist


11/3 “After” ISIS

The multiplying defeats and subsequent retreats of ISIS, culminating in the loss of its de facto capital, Raqqa, in mid-October, evoke the inevitable question: is ISIS nearing the end? In this week’s MENA Salon, while considering this question, we will raise longer-term issues: Can ISIS survive in some other form? Is the organization already relocating and transforming back to its origins? What does a post-ISIS scenario imply for the geopolitics of the Middle East and North Africa?

Recommended reading: 

From insurgency to rogue state and back
What the end of ISIS means
Rise and fall of ISIS: its dream of a caliphate is over, so what now?
ISIS post caliphate: who’s left, and where they are
As ISIS is driven from Raqqa, Sunnis remain alienated
After Islamic State, ruined Raqqa fears new strife
With loss of its caliphate, ISIS may return to guerrilla roots


10/27 Crisis in Kirkuk: The Aftermath of the Iraqi Kurdistan Referendum

On October 16th, military forces aligned with Iraq’s federal government swept into Kirkuk and drove out the Kurdish militias that had provided security for the city since 2014. They then went on to conquer neighboring areas as well. Baghdad’s assertion of authority over the disputed territory followed a referendum in which Iraqi Kurds had overwhelmingly voted in favor of independence. What will be the fallout of this crisis for Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan? What role can regional powers play to defuse tensions in the country? How will the US navigate the situation given its previous support for both sides?

Recommended reading: 
Struggle over Kirkuk puts U.S. and Iran on same side
Iraq’s reconquest of Kirkuk checks Kurdish secession
No, it wasn’t Iran: Top 7 reasons Baghdad took Kirkuk
America has become dispensable in Iraq
As Kirkuk’s governor is forced to flee, Iran moves in
Iraq, Kurdistan and Kirkuk: Untying the knot  


10/20 The Middle East in 1982

Join us for a special MENA Salon this homecoming weekend, part of our day of events featuring the Stevens Program for Middle Eastern Studies. In honor of the 35th reunion of the Class of ’82 (class of the late Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens), we will convene to look back at the events and repercussions of this critical period in the region’s history. Join faculty, students, and members of the community to discuss the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution, the Iran-Iraq War, the early years of Reagan’s foreign policy, and more. Please note this session starts at 3:30 pm, not 3:00 pm as usual.

Recommended reading: 
Obituary: King Fahd – A forceful but flawed ruler
With Ariel Sharon gone, Israel reveals the truth about the 1982 Lebanon War
The United States was responsible for the 1982 massacre of Palestinians in Beirut
Iran says Iraqi withdrawal won’t end war
Saddam Hussein is sentenced to death
The legacy of the 1980 coup in Turkey
Syria’s President Hafez al-Assad crushes rebellion in Hama


10/13 Will Fatah and Hamas Reconcile? 

On October 2, representatives of Palestinian parties Fatah and Hamas met in Gaza to pursue a reconciliation deal. This is not the first time the two groups have attempted to reach a deal. What developments lead to this particular set of negotiations? Will this attempt at creating a unity government be successful? What do Israel, Egypt, and other regional stakeholders think about these developments? We will consider these and other questions in this week’s MENA Salon.

Recommended reading: 
Palestinian factions move toward reconciliation in Gaza 
US, Israel on standby as Egypt pushes Palestinian reconciliation 
Give the people what they want: Palestinians take a step toward unity 
The evolution of Hamas 
In Gaza reconciliation effort, Palestinian politician seeks a comeback 
The doomed Palestinian reconciliation plan 
Fatah and Hamas talk reconciliation- but are Palestinians convinced?


10/6 Free Speech and Exclusion on American Campuses

Last week, off-campus groups hosted a much discussed “Free Speech Week” at UC Berkeley. A number of questions were raised by the subsequent protests and counter-protests that engulfed the university. Are American college campuses open or exclusionary spaces? Should any ideas or individuals be stigmatized in a university setting? In this week’s MENA Salon we will reflect upon the ways in which globalization, Islamophobia, and the War on Terror shape the norms that undergird campus life.

Recommended reading: 
Posters alleging UC Berkeley community members are ‘terrorist supporters’ appear on campus
NYU in Abu Dhabi: a sectarian bargain
Protest during political science meeting
A Muslim-American activist’s speech raises ire even before it’s delivered
Millenials are snowflakes: here’s the data to prove it
AUB student paper says censorship behind missed edition


9/29 Contemporary Art Production in the Middle East

How often do we consider the MENA region as a scene for contemporary art production and consumption? What can we learn about MENA from the art produced by its residents? Who is the audience for galleries in Beirut, Dubai, and Istanbul? Inspired by a range of art festivals and fairs coming to MENA in September, in this week’s Salon we will reflect on various aspects of contemporary art circulation.

Recommended reading: 
Artists explore fragmented Middle East in Istanbul
In an Arab art exhibition, land, signs, and bodies are contested
The changing face of street art in MENA
How sustainable is the art scene in Dubai?
Egypt’s emerging alternative film scene
The hunt is on for modern Middle East art


9/22 Iraqi Kurdistan Independence Referendum

On September 25, Iraqi Kurdistan is scheduled to vote on whether or not to become an independent state. The vote is seen by some observers as the culmination of a long and arduous struggle towards self-determination for Iraq’s Kurds. Other stakeholders in the Middle East worry about the effects the referendum will have on regional stability. In this week’s MENA Salon we will survey views on the Kurdish referendum. We will also reflect on the tension between the right to self-determination and the principle of territorial integrity.

Recommended reading: 
Kurdistan referendum vote: what you need to know
The possible devastating outcome of a Kurdish referendum
How Trump can earn a rare win in the Middle East
Referendum isn’t just about independence
Iraqi Kurds’ referendum fever spills over to Turkish cousins
Almost everybody is against a Kurdish referendum
The Kurds are not children


9/15 Climate Change & Environmental Crisis

Water scarcity, dust storms, and rising sea levels have enormous effects on quality of life in the MENA region. Are these environmental crises better described as “natural” or political? Are they regional or global crises? How and why does their impact vary across the region? This week’s MENA salon will address these and other questions on climate change and environmental degradation.

Recommended reading:
A worsening water crisis in the MENA 
How climate change contributed to the conflicts in the MENA
Climate change in Egypt: death on the Nile
Climate change forecast for Jordan 
Rise in sandstorms threatens MENA
ISIL’s smouldering footprint in Qayyara
In Egypt, a rising sea
One journalist’s perspective on the environmental crisis 


9/8 Feminism in Post-Revolution Tunisia 

Tunisia’s President Beji Caid Essebsi recently announced his intention to change the country’s inheritance law, which requires that women receive one half the share that men do. During his speech, the head of state drew on the text of Tunisia’s post-Arab Spring constitution, which provides that “all citizens, male and female, have equal rights and duties.” In this week’s MENA Salon we will consider a number of questions raised by this political event. To what extent did Tunisia’s 2011 revolution expand the political and economic power of women in the country? What role have governmental and religious institutions played in transforming gender relations in the country? How do struggles against sexism vary across Tunisia’s uneven socioeconomic terrain?

Recommended reading:
Tunisian president calls for gender equality in inheritance law
The gender fault line in Tunisia
Tunisia: arcane future of gender equality
Tunisia takes a big step to protect women from abuse
As Tunisia weighs women’s rights proposal, some of the staunchest opponents are women
Egypt’s Al-Azhar rejects Tunisia’s calls for equal inheritance for women
“Egypt is not Tunisia” when it comes to women’s rights


9/1 The Qatar-Saudi Rupture

In June, a coalition of states led by Saudi Arabia abruptly cut diplomatic ties with Qatar and made a series of stringent demands on the country’s ruling family. The diplomatic crisis with the tiny peninsular nation quickly led to a geopolitical rupture. In the months since, major players in the Middle East, including Turkey, Iran, and the United States, have been forced to adjust to a politically divided Gulf. This MENA Salon will feature an in-depth discussion of the effects of this dispute on Qatar and the world.

Recommended reading:

Qatar banks seek funding as diplomatic crisis bites
The long-running family rivalries behind the Qatar crisis
The rift between Qatar and the GCC could threaten Trump’s foreign policy
How can the Qatar crisis be resolved?
How Turkey fits into the Qatar puzzle
Two months into Saudi-led boycott, tiny Qatar goes on the offensive
Is the Saudi boycott of Qatar driving it into the arms of Iran?


8/25 Summer In Review

Join us for the first MENA Salon of the Fall 2017 semester, as we revisit the events and themes that shaped this summer.

Recommended reading:
The US is far more deeply involved in Syria than you know
What happens the day after the Kurdish referendum? 
How the Saudi-Qatar rivalry reshaped the Middle East
Morocco’s Burgeoning Resistance
End times in Mosul
Israel targets Al Jazeera
Turkey’s Great Terror
Iran nuclear deal



5/5 Year In Review

Join us for the final MENA Salon of the semester, as we revisit the events and themes that shaped this academic year.


4/21 Referendum in Turkey: what lies ahead?

In a referendum held on Sunday April 16, Turkish citizens narrowly voted in favor of a series of constitutional amendments that will transform the country’s parliamentary system of government into an “executive” presidency. In practice, the result expands the powers of the office presently held by its head of state, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. On top of the highly contentious process which culminated in the referendum, the ad hoc procedural modifications on the day of voting caused widespread suspicion of electoral fraud and sparked outbursts of protests. What do these mean for Turkey’s democracy? In this week’s MENA Salon we will reflect on the political future of a country in the midst of a transformation.

RIP Turkey, 1921 – 2017
Dismal thoughts about the Turkish referendum
Where does Erdogan’s referendum win leave Turkey?
Calls for referendum annulment rise in Turkey
Referendum highlights deep divisions in Turkey
Ten Thoughts on the Turkish Referendum
Turkey’s referendum: A democratic quest


4/14 Military Intervention Revisited: Syria

On April 7, in response to a chemical weapons attack in Khan Shaykhun, Idlib, the Trump administration launched several dozen Tomahawk missiles at the Syrian Military’s Shayrat Airbase. The strike was the first direct attack on the Assad regime by the American military in the six year war. Inevitably, the developments sparked off heated debates between the proponents and opponents of American interventionism in the Middle East, and further speculations on Trump administration’s motivations in the region and the new route the Syrian Civil War may take. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will tease out the nuances of this debate by examining a wide range of perspectives on the American attack.

A Practical Guide for Avoiding Fallacies on Syria
What Trump’s Missile Strike Means for Syrians Like Me
We anti-Assad Syrians hail the US strike – but fear it could be an empty gesture
Donald Trump’s “Unbelievably Small” Attack on Syria
The Long Road to Trump’s War
Why Being Against Assad Matters Too
Struggling to prove Assad did the chemical attack? Colonial media resorts to character assassination


4/7 Why Are We in Iraq?

In March it was alleged that the US-led coalition against ISIS had caused a record number of civilian casualties in Iraq and Syria. The battle for Mosul took a particularly grim turn as reports emerged that one US airstrike had killed more than 200 civilians. In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss this escalation in the war against ISIS in Iraq. We will reflect on how the latest wave of airstrikes fits in within a decades long history of American military intervention in Iraq.

Video: “About 100 Years” — Christopher Hitchens in 1991 on How Long U.S. War With Iraq Will Last

Airstrike monitoring group overwhelmed by claims of U.S.-caused civilian casualties

Trump’s War on Terror Has Quickly Become as Barbaric and Savage as He Promised

‘Take Ahmed and let me die': Victims of U.S. airstrike in Mosul recount a day of horror

Why These Iraqis Can’t Escape U.S. Bombs Falling On Their City

What the war on terror looks like

In Iraq, Trump’s son-in-law, Jared Kushner, upbeat on Mosul


3/24 Israel, the United States, and the United Nations

The United States has been at loggerheads with various United Nations bodies and member states over the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since at least 1975, the year in which UN General Assembly passed a resolution declaring “that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination.” Over the past few months, the new Trump administration has made confrontation with the UN over “bias towards to Israel” a conspicuous component of its foreign policy agenda. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss the UN’s relationship with Israel and the United states.

Trump Must Take on the United Nations

Trump Administration Ousts U.N. Official to Protect Israel From Criticism

UN Report Establishes Israeli Apartheid; Fallout Begins

Trump Admin To Boycott U.N. Council Over Anti-Israel Agenda

Israel, U.S. Trying to Persuade Western Countries to Oppose Five anti-Israel UN Resolutions

Diplomats: Nikki Haley Greenlighted U.N.’s Hiring of Salam Fayyad Before She Blocked It

When Abstention Is Progress


3/17 Anarchists, Islamists, and Other Foreign Fighters

Foreign fighters have flocked to Iraq and Syria over the past few years to fight on behalf of various parties to the related conflicts raging in both countries. In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the phenomenon of foreign fighters in the contemporary Middle East. We will consider the motivations for engaging in violence in far-flung battlefields, and the risks posed by such decisions.

The Anarchists vs. The Islamic State

Foreign fighters pour into Syria to bolster Assad regime

Uighur IS fighters vow blood will ‘flow in rivers’ in China

The Blackwater of Jihad

Beware the New Mujahideen: The Threat from Future Jihadist Networks

Why thousands of Iraqi fighters have poured into Syria to aid Assad


3/10 Who’s Afraid of the Muslim Brotherhood?

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood captured much of the world’s attention in 2012 when its candidate, Mohamed Morsi, won Egypt’s first democratic presidential election. A year later, Morsi was deposed amid massive protests by the Egyptian military and the new regime designated the Brotherhood as a terrorist organization. How has this shaped Egypt’s reconstituted political order in the year’s since? In this week’s MENA Salon we will examine Egypt’s war on the Brotherhood and the debates it has sparked among Egyptians.

Egypt’s Failed Revolution

Egypt’s Nightmare: Sisi’s Dangerous War on Terror

O Brotherhood Where Art Thou?

What happened to Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood?

I Am a Member of the Muslim Brotherhood, Not a Terrorist

When The Brotherhood Becomes The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing


3/2 Saudi Arabia: Between Repression and Reform 

Building on last week’s discussions, in this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the contemporary attempts in expanding political rights and freedoms in Saudi Arabia and the limitations of such endeavors, put against the background of the historical and politico-economic particularities of the Gulf countries. We will try to develop an ‘insider’ view, in an effort to grasp the dynamism within the society and the politics of Saudi Arabia, by touching upon issues regarding the women, the youth and the economy.

Understanding the Gulf States

How the West Misses the Point on Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia

Can Saudi Arabia Bridge Its Generation Gap?

Your App Isn’t Helping The People Of Saudi Arabia

Is Saudi Arabia on the cusp of change?

Saudi Arabia: Intensified Repression of Writers, Activists


2/24 Migrant Labor in the Gulf

The economies of several Persian Gulf states are heavily dependent on migrant labor. These workers are often subject to poor working conditions and other human rights violations. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will examine the political economy of migrant labor in the Gulf and reflect on recent trends in this area.

Middle East’s Migrant Population More Than Doubles Since 2005

How A Middle East State Built One Of The World’s Richest (And Unequal) Economies Using Immigrants

Saudi Has the Resources to Punish Protesting Workers, But Not to Protect or Repay Them

The Gulf Will Always Need Migrants

Saudi Arabia ‘deports 40,000 Pakistani workers over terror fears’

Migration in the Gulf: 2016 in Review


2/17 Islamophobia and Europe’s Shifting Political Landscape

Far right political parties are on the rise in Europe. With promises to de-Islamize the Netherlands, Geert Wilders leads polls for an upcoming election. Marine Le Pen, who has identified Islamism as a new “totalitarianism,” is a viable competitor for the the French presidency. In this week’s MENA Salon we discuss the wave of anti-Muslim sentiment that the ascendant European right is riding. We will also consider its effects on immigrants to Europe from the MENA region.

What Do Europeans Think About Muslim Immigration?

Anti-Islam Wilders frontrunner as Dutch election campaign begins

Marine Le Pen launches presidential campaign with hardline speech

Austrian government promises Muslim veil ban in attempt to appease right-wing voters

It’s not just Trump’s US. Anti-Muslim hate threatens Europe too


2/10 MENA Prisons 

Amnesty International released a report this week indicating that as many as 13,000 people were executed in Syria’s Saydnaya prison between 2011 and 2015. The report details the inhuman conditions in the prison as well as a regime of torture and “extermination.” In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the grave situation described in the report and similar cases of prisons across the region, with a focus on political prisoners.

Turkey, Hungary and Romania drive 23% rise in ECHR applications

What does it mean to be a political prisoner in Egypt?

Former political prisoner speaks out on Egypt’s jails

Saudi Arabia: Intensified Repression of Writers, Activists

Human slaughterhouse: Mass hangings and extermination at Saydnaya prison, Syria


2/3 Trump’s Muslim Ban

Last week the Trump administration issued an executive order banning the nationals of seven Middle Eastern and African countries along with all refugees from entering the US. The order sparked protests across the world, with international airports becoming flashpoints of resistance against the new policy. This week’s MENA Salon will feature a discussion of the so-called “Muslim ban.” We will reflect on its origins and its political implications.

Trump’s Executive Order on Immigration, Annotated

Immigrants from Banned Nations: Educated, Mostly Citizens, and Found in Every State

Trump’s ban sparks MidEast anger and accusations

Upset in WSJ newsroom over editor’s directive to avoid ‘majority Muslim’ in immigration ban coverage

The Opposition Is Born


12/2 “Reforming” Islam and Searching for the “Moderates”

Does Islam need a reformation? This question, which rose to the mainstream after the September 11 attacks, is again center stage with the rise of ISIS. Muslim communities have faced a wave of external and internal demands for religious reform, at times advanced by individuals with dubious motivations. Yet the idea of Islamic reformation (political, theological, and cultural) has a long and rich history. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will reflect on recent discussions about religious reformation swirling around the MENA region, and how they play out in diaspora communities.

Rached Ghannouchi Q&A: Thoughts on democratic Islam

How Did Maajid Nawaz End Up on a List of ‘Anti-Muslim Extremists’?

A renewed reading of Islamic texts

The Islamic State’s reformist apologists

Liberal Islam is not the answer to Islamic State

View from abroad: No safe place for Muslim reformers


11/18 Trumpism and the Middle East

Yikes! In a stunning turn of events billionaire and reality TV star Donald Trump has been elected president of the United States. How will a Trump administration change US foreign policy in the MENA region? Are there threads of historical continuity that can be traced from America’s foreign excursions to the triumphant Trump campaign? In this week’s special MENA Salon we take another look at the president-elect, his supporters, and some of the individuals in his orbit in order to grapple with what is coming.

History’s sinkhole

‘Do we get to win this time?’: Trump foreign policy appeal based on revenge for Iraq War failure

The dark, controversial past of Trump’s counterterrorism adviser

An Interview with Michael T. Flynn, the Ex-Pentagon Spy Who Supports Donald Trump

The Middle East that Obama left behind

How Will Trump Reshape the Middle East?

What does Trump’s victory mean for the Middle East?


11/4 The International Criminal Court

The ICC still has a valuable role to play

Some Thoughts on South Africa’s Withdrawal From the International Criminal Court

Gambia to pull out of ICC, citing failure to prosecute Tony Blair

Does the Int’l Criminal Court Have Jurisdiction Over U.S. Forces in Libya?

Will ICC see through Israel’s sham justice?

International Criminal Court investigagtes human rights abuses by British Forces in Iraq

France to seek ICC options for war crimes investigation in Aleppo

Bashir will never appear before ICC, says foreign minister


10/28 US Presidential Candidates on the Region

How different are Trump and Clinton’s ideas on the Middle East? With the election less than two week away, in this week’s MENA salon we will examine the candidates’ messaging on developments in Syria, on the Iran deal, and other unfolding events. We will also reflect on personal, professional, and institutional relationships of the candidates that may shed light on their policy leanings.

As president, Clinton would adopt a strong foreign policy

Leaked Emails Say Hillary Clinton Will Patch Up Ties to Benjamin Netanyahu in First 100 Days

Why Did the Saudi Regime and Other Gulf Tyrannies Donate Millions to the Clinton Foundation?

Will Hillary Clinton deliver on her promise to ramp up U.S. involvement in Syria?

‘Do we get to win this time?’: Trump foreign policy appeal based on revenge for Iraq War failure

How Mike Flynn Became America’s Angriest General

Joseph Schmitz, Donald Trump’s foreign policy adviser, left the Pentagon amid controversy

Fox Overlooks Trump’s Middle East Business Ventures While Hyping His Clinton Foundation Criticism


10/21 Yemen’s War

Who is responsible for the war in Yemen? In this week’s MENA Salon we discuss the origins of the ongoing conflict between the international allies of the country’s transitional government-in-exile and a coalition of Houthi-led rebels. We will pay special attention to escalating American and Saudi intervention in the conflict. We will also discuss the vulnerabilities unique to the poorest state in the Middle East.

Why the hell is the US helping Saudi Arabia bomb Yemen? A brief guide.

The role of the West in Saudi Arabia’s war in Yemen

Why Saudi Efforts in Yemen Advance U.S. Interests

The US just bombed Yemen, and no one’s talking about it

New famine fears loom in Yemen

Five years after winning the Nobel Peace Prize, her nation is riven by war

Third Yemen drone strike in a week kills 5 al-Qaeda suspects


10/14 Kurds and Kurdistan

What unique challenges do Kurdish communities face in the contemporary Middle East? How do recent political developments affect Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran? And how has the Syrian conflict changed US foreign policy discourse on Kurdish communities? In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss new opportunities and challenges raised by contemporary military conflicts, while also reflecting on modern Kurdish history and competing conceptions of a future Kurdistan.

The Kurdish Question Then and Now

Between Rojava and Washington

Why did President Erdogan restart the battle with the Kurdish PKK?

Iraqi Kurds step into Ankara-Baghdad row

US providing light arms to Kurdish-led coalition in Syria, officials confirm

Tehran blames Kurd and Isis militants for clashes in north-west Iran


10/07 Press Freedom

Five years after the start Arab Spring, is the press in the Middle East more or less free? In this week’s MENA Salon we will reflect on the ways in which journalists navigate this changing political environment to produce reliable news reports. We will also consider changes in governments’ treatment of the press in various countries including Syria, Turkey, and Iran.

2015 prison census: 199 journalists jailed worldwide

Do press freedoms exist in the Middle East?

Why is the Turkish government now targeting cartoons?

The Growth of the Syrian Media and Reliable Voices

Why proposed bill could mean the end of independent journalism in Iran

How Benjamin Netanyahu Is Crushing Israel’s Free Press


9/30 Post-coup politics in Turkey

On the night of July 17, 2016, a coup was attempted in the Republic of Turkey. Unlike several successful 20th century putsches, this one failed. In the wake of the crisis, Turkish citizens–familiar with their country’s recent history of military rule–are divided. Perspectives on the coup range from determined opposition, to furtive consent, to apathy and alienation. Attempts to grapple with the army’s intervention have been further complicated by conflict with the Kurdish communities, the state’s entanglement in the Syrian Civil War, and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s continuing crackdown (or “counter coup”). This week’s MENA Salon aims to highlight divergent views that have emerged in Turkey’s post-coup politics.

Turkey’s Cyclical Coups

Repression of Turkish intellectuals elicits global response

Turkey’s Disaster

The West fails the ‘coup test’ in Turkey

‘New Turkey’ finds founding myth in the failed coup


9/23 What is a ‘Settler Colonial Analysis’?

This week, UC Berkeley reinstated a DeCal, “Palestine: A Settler Colonial Analysis,” after briefly and unusually suspending the student facilitated course three weeks into the semester. A nonprofit called AMCHA Initiative had described the DeCal’s syllabus as “defamatory” in an open letter to Chancellor Dirks, signed by 43 like-minded groups. While the incident has spurred many to consider important questions related to academic freedom, in this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss the substantive political issue at the heart of the controversy instead: Does the concept of settler colonialism provide a useful analytic frame for understanding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?

Cal Berkeley’s Latest Effort to Erase Jewish History from Israel

Why we must see Israeli policies as a form of settler colonialism

Israel and imperialism: The big lie

Settler Colonialism: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis?

Israel is a Settler Colonial State – and That’s OK

Past is Present: Settler Colonialism in Palestine


9/16 The Refugee Crisis

There is a broad, global consensus that the flow of refugees out of Middle Eastern and North African states in conflict today constitutes a “crisis.” But is the precise meaning of the word “crisis” subject to contestation? How should we assess the responses by members of the international community? In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss some of the political, humanitarian, and national security questions that have arisen as Middle Eastern refugees have become more numerous. We will also consider long-term issues including the daily struggles that await these displaced people in their host countries.

The EU’s migration crisis is far from finished
Martyr on the Mediterranean: Athens’ Double Crisis
How Syrian Refugees Are Helping One Another Adjust to Life in a Strange Land
Why Syria’s children should be a global priority
Obama Administration Floods Country With 769 Syrian Refugees in First Week of September


9/9 U.S. Intervention in the Middle East: End of an Era? 

The End of Intervention: Two Books Explore the American Catastrophe in the Middle East

Sept. 11 Legacy: One Endless War Against Many Radical Enemies

Pundits, Decrying the Horrors of War in Aleppo, Demand Expanded War

The Anti-Imperialism of Fools

Why Is the United States Abetting Saudi War Crimes in Yemen?


9/2 Summer in Review

Syria’s Paradox: Why the War Only Ever Seems to Get Worse

What’s behind Turkey’s selective clampdown on Gulen community?

Islamophobia: What the Islamic State Really Wants

Massacre reports show U.S. inability to curb Iraq militias

The Meaning of an Olympic Snub

Racism, Pure and Simple



4/22 Hope for Beirut

A group of politically unaffiliated academics, activists and professionals are challenging the status quo of Lebanese politics by running for Beirut City Council in the municipal elections in May. Their electoral program aims to make the city a livable space for all its inhabitants, and not just the privileged few who can navigate exclusive spaces unaffected by the current garbage, refugee, and housing crises. In this week’s MENA Salon we will discuss this municipal election campaign in Beirut, the “My City” (Beirut Madinati) campaign, and other grassroots mobilization initiatives in Lebanon that envision a different political future for the country.

I Support Beirut Madinati
Interview with a Candidate
City of Thorns
Beirut Madinati
One Thousand and One Dalieh
Campaign Website


4/15 How Do We Talk about Terror?

March was a bad month. Brussels was just one of several cities hit by serious, violent attacks. For those of us who conduct research and teach about the Middle East and Islam, recent events can be a difficult topic to address. The conversation quickly turns into a matter of moral outrage, making political contextualization both difficult yet also more necessary than ever. How do we acknowledge the tragic loss of life and also advocate for forms of speech (and action) that don’t fall back on racist or Islamophobic tropes? How do we talk about “terror”?

Beyond Brussels
ISIS’s Motives
Why We Think Terrorism is Scarier than it Is
“Cleaning out the Ghettos”
What Africa Tells Us


4/8 The Panama Papers and the Middle East

It only took two days for the Panama Papers leak to claim its first casualty, with the resignation of the prime minister of Iceland. The cache of over 11 million documents implicates a dozen world leaders, plus 128 other politicians and public figures–the Middle East is not absent from this list. The Panama Papers offer a glimpse into the mechanics of the region’s famously corrupt governments, ill-funded wars, and ever-growing economic gap between rich and poor. Reporting over the last few days has situated the problems that have plagued the Middle East for decades in a broader network of global corruption. This week in the salon, we’ll talk about the implications of the Panama Papers on Middle Eastern geopolitics, including the ongoing war in Syria.

Blacklisted Companies and People
Who is Implicated in the Middle East?
Tax Havens Cost Egypt Billions

Israeli Companies
Assad’s Cousin


4/1 Is Anti-Zionism a Form of Anti-Semitism?

Last week, the UC Regents unanimously adopted a “Statement of Principles on Intolerance” to govern campus behavior, based on a report developed by a system-wide working group. While ultimately broad in scope, the report specifically addressed an apparent increase in anti-Semitic incidents on UC campuses. According to the report, these kinds of incidents are now frequently “more coded and difficult to identify,” as they occur under the guise of a political critique of Zionism. The resulting “Statement of Principles” linked anti-Zionism with anti-Semitism as a form of discrimination, although language directly equating the two was subsequently modified in the face of considerable opposition. The UC report is not an anomaly, but part of a larger trend both on and off university campuses in the US and Europe, with similar statements from world leaders ranging from Pope Francis to French Prime Minister Manuel Valls. This week in the salon, we’ll talk about the conflation of anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism, thinking about it in the broader historical context of the earlier UN resolution that tipped in the other direction, declaring Zionism a form of racism.

Daily Cal Story
Op-Ed, Censorship
Op-Ed, Hateful Ideology
Op-Ed, Not Discrimination
CUNY Testimony
UN Resolution


3/18 Cruz, Kasich, and Trump on the Middle East

After discussing Bernie Sanders’ and Hillary Clinton’s respective foreign policy positions in the Middle East, this week we will look at the policy positions of Donald Trump, Ted Cruz, and John Kasich. With republican voters concerns about the threat of terrorist attacks, Trump’s Islamophobic stance is popular, but his proclaimed “neutrality” on Israel- Palestine may off-set his rhetoric about Muslims. How do the Republican and Democrats differ on American policy in the Middle East? And how does the Middle East see primary-season juggernaut Donald Trump?

Middle East Policy
Ted Cruz on Syria
Donald Trump on Iraq
Donald Trump and the Middle East
How the Middle East Sees Donald Trump
Kasich Proposes New Agency
Kasich on Iran


3/11 Clinton and Sanders on the Middle East

It has been an unusually exciting primary season in the US, with nail-biting fights on both sides of the aisle. And while the debates have skewed towards domestic politics, foreign policy–regarding the Middle East in particular–remains a constant. While on the Republican side, the candidates may be more or less entrenched in a politics of Islamophobia, among the democrats, it often seems that the less said (or the more obscure), the better. This week in the Salon, we’ll look closely at the foreign policy records of Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton, asking, what would a Clinton or Sanders presidency mean for the Middle East?

Details on Sanders and Sha’ar ha-‘Amakim
The Middle East Policy of President Sanders
Sanders and Trump Similar on the Middle East
27 Years of Sanders on Israel
Hillary Clinton and Libya
Clinton’s Middle East Policy
Interventions, Wars, More of Same


3/4 Cultural Heritage and Current Events

As the CMES looks forward to next weekend’s symposium, Beyond Destruction: Archaeology and Cultural Heritage in the Middle East, this week’s MENA Salon will explore the relationship between cultural heritage and current events in the Middle East and North Africa. The protection of cultural heritage is at the forefront of international discussions, since the Islamic State began the systematic destruction of archaeological sites across Iraq and Syria in March 2015. We will consider questions such as: Who owns the past? Whose responsibility is it to protect cultural heritage? How is cultural heritage being used to pursue the political agendas of the various groups involved? And what is the legal framework within which these political agendas are being pursued?

Syrian heritage report
Isis’s destruction of Palmyra
Resolution 2199
The Threat to Yemen’s Heritage
Tomb Raiding in the Middle East


2/26: Permanent War – Perspectives on Iraq

How has the central Iraqi state transformed during 35 years of war? In this week’s MENA Salon, we consider a longer time horizon to think through state reconstitution and consolidation in Iraq, particularly in the wake of falling oil prices and blatant corruption. We will touch upon the sectarian dimension of state-building and state-identity, think through the rise of ISIL as extreme Sunni fundamentalism, and discuss Iran’s interventions to support Shia constituencies as well as the role of Iraqi Kurdistan in this state (re)constitution effort.

Kurdistan Agrees to Baghdad’s Plan
Iran’s Week Grip
Post-War Iraq: Everybody is Corrupt
Shia-Centric State-Building


2/19: Marriage, MENA-Style

In a belated Valentine’s Day edition of our MENA salon, we thought we’d step back for a moment from the bleak landscape of war and crisis to talk about marriage! In nearly any part of the world, marriage is a costly endeavor, but in the Middle East, we see a whole set of additional challenges. This week, we’ll look at how people face this basic and important life event, raising dowries and evading religious strictures in order to achieve legal and social recognition of that crazy thing called love.

Marriage in Taiz
Rise in Saudi “Spinsters”
Israelis Marry Abroad
Marriage Rights in Israel
Crowdfunded Gaza Wedding


2/12: The Siege of Aleppo

This week we have witnessed escalating threats of a siege of Aleppo by the Assad regime and its supporters. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss the implications of a siege for the evolving geography of the Syrian civil war, with special attention to Aleppo’s experiences, as well as its repercussions in terms of new waves of refugees in the region.

Iran’s Plan B
Putin’s Partition Plan
Mapping the Conflict
Regime Gains in Aleppo
Siege and Starvation


2/5: Turkey in Crisis

As violence flares up in Turkey, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s government has issued crackdowns on dissent across the country. The worst examples are predictably in the southeast, where civilians are under curfew and military clashes leave the bodies of the victims uncollected on the streets. Elsewhere, academics are being blacklisted and imprisoned simply for making statements calling for peace. This week in the salon, we’ll talk about the crisis in Turkey–what’s been happening over the last few weeks, and the direction things may go.

Violence in Southeast Turkey
Informants in Turkey
Emergencies of Peace
Erdogan’s Kurdish Gamble
UN Calls for Investigation


1/29: The Arab Revolutions Five Years On

Peace Process in Syria: Talk, Talk, Kill, Kill
How Can Yemen Find Peace?
Protests in Tunisia
Egypt’s Silence Protest
Five Years On


1/22/16: Winter in Review

A lot has happened since we last met two months ago! (The Paris attacks, in fact, were taking place as we held our final session of the fall.) For the first MENA Salon of the semester, we will do a quick roundup of these past months, including the Paris attacks, the execution of a prominent Shiite activist in Saudi Arabia, the severing of relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran as a result, ongoing unrest in eastern Turkey, and the academic boycott votes that have been passed by major American academic bodies. This is only a slice of recent events: the Egyptian Parliament has convened, the European Union has proceeded with its plan to label goods produced in Israeli settlements, and women in Saudi Arabia have gone to the polls for the first time. There is much to discuss! We’ll use the articles below as a starting point, but feel free to bring in other topics or suggestions for weeks to come.

Witch Hunt against Turkish Intellectuals
Diyarbakir Curfew
Saudi Arabia Severs Ties with Iran
Why ISIS Would Attack Paris
Our Conversations about Paris Are Broken


11/6/15: Tunisia – Hope of the Arab Revolutions?

Is Tunisia the model for Arab revolutions, or was the so called Jasmine Revolution a unique case? When the National Dialogue Quartet was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, global discourse proposed that Tunisia was the hope of the region. In this week’s Salon we will discuss Tunisia’s post-revolutionary moment, including the achievements (or lack thereof) of the Truth and Dignity Commission, the highly contested economic reconciliation bill, and the threat the bill poses to transitional justice today.

Tunisia is the Exception
Does New Economic Bill Threaten Tunisia’s Revolution?
Nobel Peace Prize Premature?
Attacks by “Deep State”
Ruling Party Implodes


10/30/15: What Makes an Election Credible in the Middle East and North Africa?

With only 26% of Egyptian voters turning out for last week’s parliamentary elections, serious questions have been raised as to whether these elections are emblematic of a functional democracy. Observers have also pointed out structural problems obstructing Egyptian democracy: the system of independent candidates, the banishment of the main opposition party, etc. Nonetheless, as Egypt forms its first parliament in over three years, this election will have significant consequences for the form the state takes in the foreseeable future. This week in the Salon, we’ll talk about the Egyptian parliamentary elections in terms of their challenges and outcomes, with an eye toward elections and their credibility in the broader region as well.

Egypt’s New Parliament
Staggering Defeat for the Nour Party
Clear Winners and Dark Horses
The Difference between Voting and Democracy
Egypt’s Elections Credible


10/23/15: Drone Wars

Documents leaked to The Intercept last week reveal new information about the Obama administration’s drone strikes. In this week’s MENA Salon, we will discuss the way in which drones try and fail to overcome the tyranny of distance, the people targeted and killed by U.S. drone strikes in the Middle East (writ large), the people who operate them from thousands of miles away, and the right of the state to kill.

The Assassination Complex
I Was a Drone Warrior
She Kills People from 7,850 Miles Away
Obama Misled the Public


10/16/15: A Third Intifada?

Acts of violence have been a relatively common occurrence in Israel-Palestine for a few years now; however, the recent increase in the frequency of such attacks, including stabbings or hit and runs, has left many people asking whether a third intifada has begun. Palestinians and their supporters argue that for those living under occupation, every day is a new cascade of violence, while the more personal turn toward vigilantism raises fear all around. This week in the Salon we will discuss the escalating violence in Israel-Palestine, compare this moment to the intifadas of 1987 and 2000, and consider the implications of the current unrest for both the immediate and long-term future of the region.

East Jerusalem Checkpoints
Lessons from the Second Intifada
Israel Still Holds all the Cards
Terror and Diplomacy
Lone-Wolf Attacks


10/9/15: The Injustice of Egypt’s Justice System

Since the advent of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as president of Egypt, hundreds of Egyptian activists have been imprisoned and thousands more have been sentenced to death. This week’s Salon will explore state violence and the role of Egyptian police in enforcing the law while being outside or above it. We will also discuss the history of the Egyptian judiciary, and the space it has carved out as a constantly evolving and non-homogeneous institution operating under a thoroughly authoritarian regime.

The Policeman
Egyptian Courts Say the Darndest Things
Egypt’s Judges Join In
Egypt’s Conservative Judiciary
Judiciary, Coopted


10/2/15: The War in Yemen

While the world debates the ongoing Syrian war and the ever-growing refugee crisis, the war in Yemen has received relatively little attention in the international press. But the Yemen conflict has seen some thirty thousand casualties since March alone, including a misfired air strike this week that killed over a hundred guests–many of them women and children–at a wedding party. This week in the Salon, we’ll discuss the crisis in Yemen, both in terms of domestic upheavals and the Houthi takeover of Sanaa, as well as the role of Saudi Arabia, the United States, and ISIS in the conflict.

Tragedy and Treachery in Yemen
American’s Drone War in Yemen
The Human Cost of Saudi Arabia’s Drone War
Airstrikes Hit Wedding Party
A Successful Strategy for Yemen


9/25/15: Proxy Wars and a “Resolution” for Syria

As it becomes clear that the Obama administration’s efforts to train Syrian rebels have largely failed, the emerging approach to Syria is “no policy.” Meanwhile, US special operations forces on the ground in Syria are assisting Kurdish forces in fighting ISIS, while Russia continues to supply equipment, training, and armaments to its ally Bashar al-Assad. Russia’s declared position is that it is helping Assad fight terrorism in Syria; the unspoken message is that the US should be coordinating with the Russian government to find a “resolution” to the Syrian civil war. But Russians are also thinking of post-Assad Syria, particularly their regional interests vis-à-vis Iran. In this week’s Salon we will try to make sense of these alignments and their ramifications in the region and beyond.

Putin’s Game in Syria
Russia May Have Big Plans for Syria
Iran and Russia Collaborate


9/18/15: What Went Wrong in Turkey, Part 2

In June, Turkey’s ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its parliamentary majority, thanks in large part to the success of the pro-Kurdish People’s Democratic Party (HDP) in that election. Since then, there has been a violent state campaign against pro-Kurdish entities across the country, including airstrikes, military raids, and curfews in the southeast, as well as attacks on Kurdish people and organizations by non-state groups. This week in the Salon, we’ll follow up Wednesday’s talk by Şahin Alpay at the CMES with a discussion of the growing civil unrest in Turkey, and the larger regional ramifications of how the Turkish state addresses its ongoing “Kurdish problem.”

Post-Election State Violence
Military Curfews, Firebombings, and Airstrikes
Can Turkey Pull back from the Brink?
Turkey’s PKK Conflict
HDP Calls on PKK


9/11/15:The Refugee Crisis

With ISIS entrenched and no end to the Syrian civil war in sight, millions of Syrians have been displaced. But where should they go? Millions are currently seeking shelter in neighboring Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan; hundreds of thousands more have assumed tremendous physical risk and crossed land and sea into Europe, where they face prejudice and even attack as they await asylum. As gut-wrenching images of lifeless bodies circulate around the world, Europe is finally rolling out its plan for dealing with the refugees at its borders, and there is increased pressure for the United States to accept more refugees. Moreover, Israel’s small border with Syria has opened up serious questions about its own role in the production of refugee populations in the Middle East: Will Israel accept Syrian refugees? PM Netanyahu has declined to do so thus far. Would this open the door for the return of approximately 525,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria? This week in the Salon, we will discuss the debates that have circulated across the globe as refugees look anywhere they can for a safe harbor to weather the storm.

What You Need to Know
Let Them In and Let Them Earn
“Migrant” or “Refugee”
Movement for U.S. to Accept Refugees
Abbas and the U.N.


9/4/15: “You Stink”: Lebanon’s Imminent “Revolution”

This week: “You Stink” – Lebanon’s Imminent “Revolution” In this week’s Salon, we will discuss Lebanon’s “You Stink” movement, which has brought major protests to the streets of Beirut, and which some observers are interpreting as a sign of Lebanon’s imminent revolution. For now, there are more questions than answers, which makes it a perfect topic for the MENA Salon. Is the movement really about trash? Who are its leaders and what do they want? Who is participating in the protests? And, critically, what is the significance of “You Stink” in Lebanon’s current climate? Could the movement shake Lebanon’s entrenched sectarian politics? Join us for a discussion on this dramatic (and odorous) intersection of civic infrastructure and national politics.

Notes on Paralysis
You Stink
Garbage Politics
Scents of an Ending
Martyrs’ Square


8/28/15: Summer 2015 in Review

This Week’s Topic: Summer 2015 in Review The first MENA Salon of the semester will feature a brief roundup of notable events in the Middle East and North Africa this summer, including the murder of Khaled al-Asaad and the destruction at Palmyra carried out by ISIS; the attacks in Sousse, Tunisia and the changing perception of Tunisia as the success story of the Arab revolutions; the summer of protests in Lebanon and the rise of the “You Stink” movement; and the Iran deal and its effects on broader regional dynamics, including relations between Israel and Palestine.

Beheading of Khaled Al-Asaad
Tunisia is Sacrificing its Democracy
Talking Trash in Lebanon
The Iran Nuclear Agreement and the Question of Palestine



4/24/15: 100 Years after the Armenian Genocide

The Guardian Briefing
Turkey’s Century of Denial
Armenian Genocide Debate
A Criminal Lie
The 24th of April


4/17/15: Deal or No Deal? The Iranian Nuclear Negotiations

Obama Strongly Defends Iran Deal
Nuclear Agreement
Lawmakers Demand Fact Sheet
Lausanne Strengthens Hand
What did Khamenei Really Say?


4/10/15: Regional Crisis in Yemen?

Iran-Saudi Proxy War
What do the Leaders of Yemen’s Houthis Want?
Intervention in Iran


3/20/15: Israel’s Parliamentary Elections

Election Rules Complicate Naming a Winner
Coalition Math
Could a Netanyahu Loss Change Everything?
Israel’s Ethnic Divide


3/13/15: Neoliberal Palestine

Coca-Cola to Build First Gaza Factory
Attacks on Gaza are Causing Coca-Cola Boycotts
After the Arab Spring in Palestine
How the PA Enriched an Elite


3/6/15: Mr. Netanyahu Goes to Washington

Netanyahu Arrives in Washington to Oppose Iran Deal
Mr. Netanyahu Goes to Washington
Why Obama Won’t Meet with Israeli PM
Skip the Speech


2/27/15: ISIS and Geopolitics: The Beheading of Copts in Libya

Copts, Libya, and Nationalism
We are all Copts
The Lives they Lived
Egyptian Kidnappings in Libya


2/20/15: The Politics of Islamophobia in America

Chapel Hill Shooting
Islamophobia Network
Houston Islamic Center Burns
Anti-Muslim Animus


2/13/15: ISIS, Islam, and Shock Politics

It Wasn’t Their War
ISIS “Shock and Awe”
Islamic Teachings Forbid Burning
Muslim Clerics Denounce Burning
Strategy of Savagery


2/6/15: Arab Identity Crisis?

The Coming Arab Identity Crisis
Washington Can’t Solve the Identity Crisis
Multiculti Schisms
Reclaiming Arabness


1/30/15: Continued Reflections on Charlie Hebdo: French Secularism and Minorities in France

The French Myth of Secularism
Why French Law Treats Dieudonne and Charlie Hebdo Differently
The Threat to France’s Jews
The Attack on Charlie Hebdo
Charlie Hebdo: Berkeley Library Guide


1/23/15: Charlie Hebdo: Islam, Muslims, and Free Speech

Islamophobia becoming Undeclared Racism
Islam and Free Speech
On Charlie Hebdo
French Far Right Poised to Exploit Attacks


11/21/14: U.S.-Saudi Relations

American President and Saudi King
Fact Sheet
Wahhabism and Saudi Arabia
Beheadings and Saudi Arabia


11/14/14: The Politics of Persecution: Christians in the Middle East

Friendless Christians
The Middle East without Christians
Iraqi Christians in Mosul
War on Christianity
Persecution of Coptic Christians


11/7/14: Tunisia Calling

The Tunisian Achievement
Tunisia and the Arab Spring
Tunisia Decides
Victory of Secularism
So Where’s the Money?
Tunisia Election Results


10/31/14: Secularism and Islamist Politics

Arab Christians
Militant Secularism
Conversations with History
The Arab Way


10/24/14: “Saving” Women in the Middle East

Afghanistan to Syria
Do Muslim Women Need Saving 2?
Women Fight ISIS
The Women of ISIS
Meet the Female Recruiters of ISIS


10/17/14: Islamophobia and its Effects on the Popular Sphere

Malala and Nabila Worlds Apart
Do Muslim Women Need Saving 1?
Bill Maher on Islamophobia
Maher vs. Affleck
Bill Maher’s Horrible Excuse


10/10/14: Gaza and Operation Protective Edge

Is Mahmoud Abbas Right?
Capsizing in Mediterranean
The Fate of the Gaza Ceasefire
Israel is Put on Trial


9/26/14: What’s at Stake for Iran’s Nuclear Program?

Iran Nuclear Timeline
The Iranian Threat
Israel’s Secret Nuclear Arsenal
A Year after Historic Phone Call


9/17/14: The Egyptian Presidency from Revolution to Counterrevolution 

Egypt Guide
Egypt’s Other Candidate
Fragmented Politics
Coptic Movement
Counting Votes in Egypt
Clueless in Cairo


9/12/14: ISIS and Rethinking Sykes-Picot

Persecution of Christians Contradicts a Caliphate
The Islamic State 1
Iraqis under ISIS Rule in Mosul
Rise in ISIS Executions
ISIS Consolidates

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